Monday, June 26, 2017

Francois Bourassa's 1686, voyage to Hudson Bay for the Compagnie du Nord


Francois Bourassa (1659-1708) (our 7th great-grandfather) made a voyage to Hudson Bay for the Compagnie du Nord in 1686.

The following is an account of his adventure from "Chevalier de Troyes and the Attack at Hudson’s Bay" 

In 1685, news reached New France that the British had established permanent posts on Hudson’s Bay, and had carried off a large shipment of beaver pelts intended for Quebec City. 

In response, French Governor Brisay de Denonville charged Chevalier de Troyes, a captain in the Piémont Regiment, to lead an expedition to rout the British from the bay. De Troyes was given the task of capturing any British that he could, especially associates of Pierre Radisson, who was by then regarded as a traitor (Legget 1975: 40). 

The expedition was funded in large part by the Compagnie du Nord, which then held the monopoly on the fur trade in the region for the French. In 1686, de Troyes and his three senior officers, the brothers Pierre, Paul, and Jacques Le Moyne, led 96 other men in over thirty canoes up the Ottawa River and on towards the English posts of Hudson’s Bay. 


The voyage went well. Leaving Montreal on March 20th, when ice was still on the Ottawa, they reached the junction at Mattawa on May 10th, but here, instead of following the accustomed route west, they continued north up the Ottawa and into Lake Temiskaming. The company followed the portage route into the Abitibi River, and finally reached James Bay on June 20th, exactly three months after their departure (Legget 1975: 40). 

They captured three British forts without great difficulty ‐ Monsipi (Moose Factory), Rupert (Charles), and Albany, and all without any losing of any of their men. Pierre Le Moyne remained in charge of the forts, and de Troyes led the main body of the troop safely back to Quebec by that October. 

In total, the expedition resulted in the loss of only three men: two from drowning, and a third from exposure (Legget 1975: 40). The operation was therefore a military success with positive results for the Compagnie du Nord. 

Sources: 

The Fur Trade along the Ottawa River

Families of Michilimackinac – Boisguillet/Boisguilbert to Bourassa Compiled by Diane Wolford Sheppard

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Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes


Friday, June 16, 2017

Tasse à canot de voyageurs - Voyageurs canoe cup

"Canoes in a Fog" by Frances Anne Hopkins


During the fur trade era French-Canadian voyageurs and Native American hunters traveling by canoe often carried wooden canoe cups (sometimes called belt cups), a practical accessory that allowed them to dip drinking water from a lake or stream while paddling a canoe.  Until drinking unfiltered water became identified as dangerous in the 1970s, the tradition of carrying canoe cups continued with sportsmen.


Canoe cups were typically made from a tree burl, often maple or birch, that was hollowed out and shaped with crooked knife. The cups were sometimes decorated with incised, relief-carved, painted, or burned (pyrography) motifs of indigenous flora and fauna. 


Attached to the cup was usually a piece of deer or moose hide cordage, and a twig or carved toggle, which allowed the cup to hang from the sash or belt. 


My hand-carved canoe cup (pictured here) is engraved and decorated with burnt wood details of a trout or whitefish on each side.  It measures about  4¾" long by 3¼" wide by 2¼" deep, and is unsigned.  It was made by an Atikamekw Indian from Manawan, Quebec, Canada (about 160 kilometers northeast of Montreal).  


The Atikamekw are the indigenous inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan ("Our Land"), in the upper Saint-Maurice River valley of Quebec.  The Atikamekw language, is a variety of the Cree language.  Their name, which literally means "lake whitefish", is sometimes also spelt "Atihkamekw", "Attikamekw", "Attikamek", or "Atikamek".  The French colonists referred to them as Têtes-de-Boules, meaning "Ball-Heads" or "Round-Heads" because of the shape of their headdress.

More elaborately carved examples of "Canoe Cups" or "Belt Cups" can be seen at:

Belt Cup, c. 1820, Anishinaabe, Ottawa or Ojibwa -- http://www.seattleartmuseum.org/exhibitions/indigenous (search - "Belt Cup")

Exceptional Northeast Carved Wood Belt Cup -- https://www.skinnerinc.com/auctions/2685B/lots/245

Northeast Carved and Painted Wood Canoe Cup -- https://www.skinnerinc.com/auctions/2563B/lots/332

Eastern Woodlands carved wood Belt Cup. c. 1760 -- https://fineart.ha.com/itm/american-indian-art/wood-sculpture/an-eastern-woodlands-carved-wood-belt-cupc-1760/a/5161-50330.s

Update -- Woodlands Indian Canoe Cup on PBS -- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/season/6/miami-fl/appraisals/native-american-artifacts--200102A34/

Canoe Cup appraised on PBS Antiques Roadshow at $15-20,000

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Eastern Woodlands Indian Mocotaugan or Crooked Knife



This Eastern Woodlands Indian artifact, called a Mocotaugan by the Cree (pronounced “mah-kuh-TAW-gun”) is also called a “crooked knife.” It was an anthropologically important, intriguing, and sometimes beautiful woodworking tool typically used to split or carve wood for basket-making and canoe building.


My crooked knife (circa 1850) has a chip-carved ash handle with blade made from an old file, the blade is held in place with copper wire wrapping (partially missing). It is approximately  8.5" long.


Watch Caesar Newashish, a Native American of the Attikamek nation of the Manouane reserve in Quebec, use a crooked knife as he builds his bark canoe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRFCxxAKafc

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Narcisse Roy (1765-1814) Montreal Fur Trade Silversmith

Hudson Bay trade silver cross made by Narcisse Roy c.1800

This Native American Indian trade silver cross on a red faceted trade bead necklace was made by Narcisse Roy “N.R.” of Montreal, Quebec, Canada circa 1800. The cross is a museum quality trade silver artifact with the correct hallmarks for Quebec, the crown, “HB” (Hudson Bay Company), crown over V (meaning the silver is sterling), and “N.R.” (Narcisse Roy’s cartouche or touch mark). 

The front of the cross has a setting of glass or perhaps a gem stone which magnifies a “HB” hallmark. The cross hangs on a trade bead necklace with red faceted glass beads and brass trade beads all from the late 18th or early 19th century.  The cross measures 4 1/4” T x 3 1/8” W.


The trade bead necklace is on a 32" long strand. When I purchased the cross and necklace its provenance was stated to be from the Bryce Hathcock Collection.

ABOUT NARCISSE ROY 

Narcisse Roy (1765 - 1814) Artist, silversmith and manufacturer in Montreal, Quebec. Worked between 1797 and 1814. Narcisse Roy did considerable silversmithing for the Hudson’s Bay Company, and supplied vast quantities of trade silver to the North West Company.

More from: Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/roy_narsise_5E.html

NARSISE (Narcis, Narcisse, Narsis, Narsisse) ROY, silversmith, artist and merchant; b. 27 Nov. 1765 in Montreal, Que., son of Jacques Roy and Marie-Françoise Prud’homme; d. there 23 March 1814.

Narsise Roy must have done his apprenticeship as a silversmith in the period between 1777 and 1786. Robert Cruickshank may have given him his training, since their marks bear striking similarities, particularly in the way the initials RC and NR are formed. However, Roy could have had as master one of the many other silversmiths who were active in Montreal at that time: Louis-Nicolas Gaudin, dit La Poterie, Charles-François Delique, Jacques Varin*, dit La Pistole, Joseph Schindler*, Louis-Alexandre and Pierre Huguet, dit Latour, Bernard Decousse, Dominique Rousseau*, François Larsonneur, Caspar Frederic Grunewalt, Pierre Foureur, dit Champagne, Simon Beaugrand, John Wood, or Charles Arnoldi.

On 25 June 1787, Roy, “a merchant silversmith,” married Marie-Joseph Jérôme, dit Latour, in Montreal. The bride brought a dowry of 1,100 livres; in addition she received an inheritance from her mother in 1788 and one from her father in 1789, which brought in 1,800 livres, 301 cords of hardwood, and a year’s wheat crop. The couple moved into the house belonging to Pierre Roy, Narsise’s brother, on Rue Saint-Laurent. Twelve children were born of the marriage.

Roy remained in close touch with his family. From 1794 he kept his mother in his own home and looked after her; hence he gained certain benefits under her will and some minimal financial aid from one of his brothers because “his large family does not permit him to keep his said mother without some compensation.” Bonds of family and friendship linked the Roys with a number of silversmiths, in particular Nathan Starns, at whose marriage they were present on 20 Feb. 1794. Roy was also godfather to Narcisse Auclair, who would become an apprentice of Cruickshank in 1805 and then of Starns in 1807. Another of Cruickshank’s apprentices, Michel Roy, was a nephew of Narsise. Furthermore Roy appraised the tools of Pierre Huguet, dit Latour, and the contents of his silversmith’s shop for the inventories made after the deaths of his two wives, the first being done in 1788 with the assistance of Foureur, dit Champagne, and the second in 1802 with the help of Starns.

Roy regularly engaged in land and real estate transactions. In 1789 and 1790 he purchased in succession two properties in the faubourg Saint-Laurent, one of them from the merchant Louis Cavilhe. It is interesting that the sum of 6,500 shillings required for this purchase was paid entirely in trade silver. The first installment, made in February 1791, was valued at 1,000 shillings; it consisted of “two thousand ear pendants for the Indians, of thoroughly cleaned and polished silver, half of them small and half large.” The final remittance was delivered in 1794. That year Roy bought a third property, again in the faubourgSaint-Laurent, from the merchant Joseph Howard*, for 3,000 livres, of which 2,400 would be paid “in silverware for the Indians.” This debt eventually had to be paid to the merchant Jean-Baptiste-Toussaint Pothier* since Howard’s heirs transferred it to him in 1805. In 1796 Roy bought another piece of land in the faubourg Saint-Laurent, and in 1798 a lot on Rue Saint-Jacques on which he immediately erected a two-story stone house. He had another house built in 1808–9. These numerous investments give evidence of real prosperity and business acumen.

The hiring of five apprentices in succession reflected intense activity. Jean-Baptiste Lapointe was taken on in 1793 for six years, and Roy remained in touch with him and acted as a witness at his marriage in 1802; Charles-Olivier Lepage was engaged in 1796, Antoine Delisle in 1797, Louis Tribaut, dit Laffriquain, in 1801, and François Leclair in 1802. From 1801 until 1804 Roy filled orders for the North West Company amounting to an impressive total of some 45,000 articles of trade silver: brooches, ear-rings, charms in the shape of crosses, bracelets, and “couettes”; the £1,500 of income they generated was a very large sum at the time. Roy also sold the company other goods, such as bolts of cloth and shoes.

At the end of the 18th century there was a heavy demand for trade silver. Like a number of Montreal silversmiths Roy directed the greater part of his professional activity to that market, having abandoned production of religious silverware. As the articles for the fur trade were not always marked, and as they were dispersed over an immense territory, only a few utensils and pieces of jewelry bearing his mark have been identified. The commercial importance of trade silver, in terms of the number of silversmiths involved and the phenomenal quantities of items produced, has not yet been adequately assessed in the context of an economy in which the fur trade occupied a privileged position.

During the 17 years of his business Narsise Roy hired five apprentices. Over a period of 34 years Cruickshank took on the same number, whereas Huguet in his 35 years of practice relied on two master silversmiths and eight apprentices. Cruickshank and Huguet, however, made a great deal of religious and domestic silverware as well. Thus Roy may be ranked as one of the largest producers of trade silver, along with the Huguets, Cruickshanks, Arnoldis, Rousseaus, and Schindlers.

by Robert Derome and José Ménard

[John E. Langdon is the only author to mention Narsise Roy’s apprenticeship with Robert Cruickshank, but he does not cite the source of this statement.  r.d. and j.m.]
ANQ-M, CE-51, 28 nov. 1765, 25 juin 1787, 4 nov. 1790, 26 mars 1814; CE1-63, 1802; CN1-68, 23 avril 1813; CN1-74, 17 janv. 1788; 30 janv., 27–28 sept. 1802; 12, 26 déc. 1808; 27 avril 1809; CN1-121, 23 nov. 1790, 14 mai 1794; CN1-128, 21 juin 1787; 1er oct. 1788; 30 mars, 30 mai, 21 août 1789; 11 févr. 1793; 20 févr., 29 juill., 25 sept. 1794; 19, 20 août, 25 oct., 23 nov. 1796; 22 sept. 1797; 30 août, 10 sept. 1798; 24 août, 13 sept. 1799; 13 juin 1801; 29 mai 1805; CN1-185, 15 June, 13 Dec. 1802; 4 Nov. 1805; 16 Oct. 1807; CN1-243, 29 mai 1805; CN1-313, 23 mai 1809; 17 févr., 27 mars 1810. MAC-CD, Fonds Morisset, 2, R888/M623/2; R888/N222.5. Langdon,Canadian silversmiths. Traquair, Old silver of Quebec. Gérard Morisset, “Bibelots et futilités,” La Patrie (Montréal), 15 janv. 1905: 14–15.
General Bibliography
© 1983–2017 University of Toronto/Université Laval


ABOUT TRADE SILVER

From: Encyclopedia Dubuque, by Marshall Cohen—researcher and producer

When white traders made contact with Native American peoples,they were anxious to find highly desirable and portable items to trade with the natives in exchange for furs. Glass beads and silver jewelry filled this need perfectly.

Newly elected chief at the Huron Tribal Council

Silver became a symbol of friendship and alliance and was first used in military alliances during the colonial wars. Fur traders presented gifts of silver to the chiefs of tribes with whom they wanted to trade. Not seen as a bribe but as a token of goodwill, the practice followed the Native American tradition of wampum exchange symbolizing an agreement between equals.

The first pieces of "trade silver" may have been personal items owned by the traders. Before long, specific styles of silver jewelry were being produced - in Europe at first, then later in North America - expressly for the fur trade. From 1725 until about 1825 silver became one of the dominant items of the fur trade. Fashioned from coins, usually melted down and shaped or hammered into thin sheets, trade silver was produced in large quantities.

High quality trade pieces were manufactured by silversmiths in Montreal, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, and St. Louis. Major Canadian makers included Robert Cruickshank who traveled to the Upper Mississippi region, Charles Arnoldi, Pierre Huguet dit Latour, Joseph Schindler and Narcisse Roy. Such masters would employ up to thirty other silversmiths to help meet the demands of fur traders. Larger pieces bore the mark of the silversmith; smaller pieces usually did not.

The use of makers' marks by these craftsmen have make it possible to trace these pieces back to maker, location and date. These early craftsmen used hand-made iron punches, chisels and saws to cut the intricate designs. Then they finished the piece by hammering the silver on a polished iron block (doming), filing, polishing and lastly, engraving.

Because of the high demand between 1780 and 1820, trade silver became a mainstay of the silversmiths' trade.

The most important requirement from the trader's point of view was that the pieces be thin, both to reduce cost and to make the silver light for transportation into the interior.

Northeastern tribes - who at first had little in the way of metal-working crafts - placed great value in silver jewelry in specific styles. An active trade in sterling silver brooches, rings, earrings, and other pieces flourished through the fur-trade era of the 17th through mid-19th centuries. After that time, changes were introduced including so-called "nickel silver", also known as "German silver." This inexpensive alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc contained no real silver.

"German silver" came into this country during the early 1800s, it was not obtainable in sheet form before 1838 and does not appear to have been used as a substitute for sterling in trade silver until after 1850.

Associating pieces of trade silver to a certain historical date or narrow time period is very difficult. Most of the artifact pieces are dated by their makers' marks, and makers generally produced items over several decades of their career. Generally the more basic the silver piece, the earlier the time period. The simpler rings - with few or no piercings, the crowned or weeping hearts, the plainest crosses, and nosebobs - are the ones which date to the early to mid 1700s although these designs were not necessarily dropped in favor of the more ornate work. The more elaborate pieces with fancy-shaped or multiple cutouts were generally not produced until the late 1700s to 1800s.

In the fierce competition between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, the British-based HBC tried to avoid introducing silver into its trade because it was a fairly expensive item. However, the North West Company were so successful that the British were forced to introduce trade silver in 1796. In 1821, when they took over control of the Montréal-based NWC, the first item dropped from the trading lists was silver.

Canoes passing Caughnawaga (Frances Ann Hopkins)

ROY WAS A DISTANT RELATIVE

Narcisse Roy was a distant relative of mine.  You may think this is taking things too far in trying to make a genealogy connection, but he was the grand-nephew of the wife of our 9th great-uncle.

Confused?  The lineage back to Lucy Pinsonneau (my 2nd great-grandmother) looks like this:

Narcisse Roy (1765 - 1814) -- grand-nephew of wife of 9th great-uncle -- Montreal Silversmith
Jacques Roy (1718 - 1773) -- father of Narcisse Roy
Jacques Roy (1688 - 1731) -- father of Jacques Roy
Catherine Ducharme (1657 - 1719) -- mother of Jacques Roy
Madeleine Roy (1684 - 1726) -- daughter of Catherine Ducharme
Jean Perras dit Lafontaine (1668 - 1736) -- husband of Madeleine Roy -- 9th great-uncle
Denise Lemaitre (1635 - 1691) -- mother of Jean Perras dit Lafontaine
Marguerite Perras dit La Fontaine (1665 - 1708) -- daughter of Denise Lemaitre
Joseph Poupart (1696 - 1726) -- son of Marguerite Perras dit La Fontaine
Marie Josephe Poupart (1725 - 1799) -- daughter of Joseph Poupart
Pierre Barette dit Courville (1748 - 1794) -- son of Marie Josephe Poupart
Marie Angelique Baret (Barette) dit Courville (1779 - 1815) -- daughter of Pierre Barette dit Courville
Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier Lagassé (1808 - 1883) -- daughter of Marie Angelique Baret (Barette) dit Courville
Lucy Passino (Pinsonneau) (1836 - 1917) -- daughter of Marie Emélie Meunier Lagassé -- my 2nd great-grandmother

ADDENDA (June 9, 2017) Narcisse Roy, Born in Montreal, Nov. 27, 1765.

His paternal grandmother, Marguerite French, was born in Deerfield, Mass., May 22, 1695; was captured by the Indians and taken to Montreal March 1707, and was there rescued and brought up by the sisters of the Congregation de Notre Dame.  Married in Montreal 1787 Marie Josephte Gerome Latour, related to other Montreal silversmiths.

As a silversmith, he trained several apprentices and made much silver for the Indian trade.  His mark, NR in script in a shaped cartouche, is found on Indian silver ornaments and some domestic silver.

In the manuscript account and invoice books of the Northwest Company (traders at Mackinac and elsewhere among the Indians), now in the archives of the Seminary at Quebec, are many records of the trade silver supplied by Narcisse Roy, as in 1801, the order including:

2,000 Broaches 
1,500 Small Crossee 
10 Arm Bands
2,000 Earbobs 
49 Ear Wheels 
10 Sets Gorgets
264 Heart Broaches 
34 Wrist Bands 
78 Beavers (effigies)
20 Double Crosses

Narcisse Roy died in Montreal March 18, 1814.

sources:

"The Old Silver of Quebec" by Ramsay Traquair, Toronto, 1940

"Indian Trade Silver" by Marius Barbeau. 1840.


Return to beginning of book… http://laprairie-voyageur-canoes.blogspot.com/2017/03/ripples-introduction-contents-and.html

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

Saturday, May 13, 2017

Still More La Prairie Voyageur Ancestors (AFT March 11, 2017)


Addenda to Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes (AFTER March 11, 2017)


Joseph Duquet (1664-Aft. 1741)(8th great-uncle)
son of Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625-1702)
B: 11 Aug 1664 in Québec, Qc, Can 
D: Aft. 1741, Canada 
Marriage 1702 to Suzanne Choret (1681-1759)
son of Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625-1702)
• 1735, Jun 4, Engagement of Joseph Duquet (devant) to Jean-Marie Nolan, to go to Michilimackinac. Notary François Lepailleur de LaFerté.

Andre Duquet (1730–1801)(6th great-uncle)
son of Etienne Duquet dit Desrochers (1695–1762) and Marie Francoise Deneau (1698–1751)
BIRTH 11 MAR 1730 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 19 MAY 1801 • Notre-Dame-de-la-Madeleine, Laprairie, St Jean, Quebec, Canada
No known marriage
• 1752, May 5, Engagement of Andre Duquet to Louis Lamy, to go to Detroit, and spend winter. Notary Louis Claude Danré de Blanzy.

Ignace Rigobert Pinsonneau (Pinsono) dit Lafleur (1736-_)(2nd cousin 6x removed)
son of Paul Pinsonneau (Pinsono) dit Lafleur (1701-1742) and Marie Josephte Tessier (1704-1779)
BIRTH 13 JUL 1736 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH Unknown
Marriage 1762 to Marie Josephe Payant (Payan) (Payet) (1740-_)
• 1757, Jun 10, Engagement of Ignace Rigobert Pinsonneau (Pinsono) dit Lafleur to Saint Disiers, to go to Michilmakinac. Notary Gervais Hodiesne.


Francois Albert Duquet (1731–1803)(6th great-uncle)
son of Etienne Duquet dit Desrochers (1695–1762) and Marie Francoise Deneau (1698–1751)
BIRTH 12 MAY 1731 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 5 JAN 1803 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
No known marriage
• 1758, Apr 1, Engagement of Albert Duquet to Pierre Reaume, to go to Detroit. Notary François Simonnet.

Thomas Pinsonneau dit La Fleur (1731-1810)(2nd cousin 6x removed)
son of Paul Pinsonneau (Pinsono) dit Lafleur (1701-1742) and Marie Josephte Tessier (1704-1779)
BIRTH 1 DEC 1731 • Montréal, Quebec, New France (Canada)
DEATH 1 MAY 1810 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1776 to Euphraise Artaud Hertaux
• 1761, Jun 10, Engagement of Thomas Pinsonneau dit La Fleur (GOUVERNAIL) to Joseph Daguilhé, to go to Michilimackinac. Notary François Simonnet.


Pierre Lemieux (1733–1789)(1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Jacques Lemieux (1704–1775) and Marie Catherine Deniger Sansoucy (1709–1746)
BIRTH 23 SEP 1733 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH FEB 26, 1789 • St-Constant, Laprairie, Quebec
Marriage (2) 1777 to Marie Angelique Beaudin (1752–1783)
• 1763, Apr 29, Engagement of Pierre Lemieux to Jacques LaSelle, to go to Détroit. Notary Gervais Hodiesne.

Joseph Boyer (1714-1797)(8th great-uncle)
son of Antoine Jacques Boyer (1671-1747) and Marie Perras (1673-1736)
BIRTH 21 SEP 1714, LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 13 JUN 1797, LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1737 to Marie Angelique Roy (1717-1738) (2) 1743 to Michelle Lamarque (1712-1792)
• 1763, May 2, Engagement of Joseph Boyer to Jacques LaSelle, to go to Detroit. Notary Gervais Hodiesne.


Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes


Thursday, May 4, 2017

Homage To My LaPrairie Voyageur Ancestors


As I've stated previously in "Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes," I've been interested in the North American fur trade for the past 35 years.  

Here's a photo (above) from a 1988 Rendezvous reenactment at Hart Canyon in California.  That's me on the far left.  I sure wish I hadn't sold that little hunters tipi.

Back in the 1980s, I began collecting fur trade artifacts and replica souvenirs.  Then in 2011, I made a breakthrough in my family genealogy, and over the past six years I've discovered over 100 voyageur ancestors, mostly from LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada.

During this past year I've started collecting more fur trade memorabilia as a way to pay homage to my ancestors.

My Fur Trade Collection


Replica North West Company 1820 token (worth one made beaver) and trade beads: yellow French cross, red white hearts, and small blue padre beads.


Trade silver Montreal cross and trade beads: Lewis and Clark with small blue padre beads.


Trade silver beaver effigy pendant and mixed trade beads.

My Ancestry Paper Trail


1763, Apr 29, Engagement of Joseph Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1733-1779) (5th great-grandfather) voyageur, to Michel Laselle, a Montreal merchant, to go to Detroit. Notary Hadiesne.


Jean-Baptiste Mignier (Meunier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1749-1828) (5th great-grandfather) • 1778, Ezechiel Solomon hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier, voyageur de La Prairie de la Magdeleine to go to Mississippi, and spend the winter, Notary Antoine Foucher.


1793, Mar 18, Michel Vielle dit Cossé (1771-1810) (5th great-uncle) Engaged as a voyageur to go to dans le Nord-Ouest du Canada (far north west) for traders McTavish, Frobisher and Company aka North West Company. The contract states he is a Bowmen (Avant) who acted as the guide.


1797, August 11, Engagement of Gabriel Pinsonneau (1770-1807) (4th great-grandfather) of La Prairie, to Jacques & François Lasette to go to Detroit. Notary Louis Chaboillez.


1797, Feb 14, Engagement of Joseph Vielle dit Cossé (1767-_) (5th great-uncle) voyageur, to go to Nord Ouest [North West], Nipigon and Lac Superieur for traders McTavish, Frobisher and Company aka North West Company. Hired by company representative Alexander Mackenzie. The contract states he is a Bowmen (Avant) the man located in the front (or bow) of the canoe who acted as the guide.


Jean-Baptiste Meunier (Mignier, Minier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1776-1835) (4th greatgrandfather) • 1803, Oct 6, McTavish, Frobisher & Co. (North West Company) hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier voyageur de St-André-d’Argenteuil to go to Lac De La Pluie (Rainy Lake), notary Louis Chaboillez).  Contract Notes: Go through Michilimakinac if required, make two trips from Kamanatiguià Fort to Portage de la Montagne, and give six days of drudgery, and help carry the three canoes in the land.


The learn more see:


Happy paddling.


Wednesday, April 12, 2017

New Found La Prairie Voyageur Ancestors (AFT March 11, 2017)


Addenda to Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes (AFTER March 11, 2017)

Charles Duquet (1692–1747) (7th great-uncle)
son of Jean Duquet dit Desrochers (1651–1710) and Catherine-Ursule Amiot (1664–1715)
BIRTH 27 FEB 1692 • Lauzon, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 11 AUG 1747 • Terrebonne, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1719 to Catherine Mallet (1700–1768)
• 1739, Jun 19, Engagement of Charles Duquet to Sr Montgras to go to Michilimackinac.

Jacques Cusson (1700–1758) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Jean Baptiste Cusson Dit Desormiers (1673–1740) and Marguerite Rochereau (1679–1733)
BIRTH 5 AUG 1700 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 7 MAR 1758 • La Prairie, , Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1729 to Michelle Cholet (1705-_)
• 1741, Jun 2, Engagement of Jacques Cusson to Claude Marin Ecuyer, to go to Michilimackinac

Jacques Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1682–1773) (6th great-grandfather)
son of François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646–1731) and Anne LeBer (1647–1732)
BIRTH 13 APR 1682 • Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 22 MAR 1773 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1712 to Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695–1766)

• 1744, Apr 12, Engagement of Jacques Pinsonneau to Joseph Delalamce & Mc Cherurgien to go to pays d'Haut


Louis Lambert Duquet dit Desrochers (1722–1790) (1st cousin 7x removed)
son of Charles Duquet (1692–1747) and Catherine Mallet (1700–1768)
BIRTH 1722 • Lachine, Quebec, Canada
DEATH 8 SEP 1790 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1749 to Suzanne Boursier (1724-1797)
• 1745, May 15, Engagement of Louis Duquet to Dequindre

• 1748, June 14, Permission of the Governor of the Galissonniere to the Sieurs de Clignancour, L'Echelle and Moniere to send from Montreal six canoes equipped with thirty-eight men to the station of La Baie. It is forbidden to do any business other than at the said post. Role of the engages of the six canoes; Jean-Baptiste Pomainville, guide; Gabriel Gervais, Pierre Laviolette, Joseph Denio, Joseph Couillard, Pierre Laviolette, of Châteauguay; Louis Roze, Pierre Roze, and Pierre Poirier off the Rivière-des-Prairies; Toussaint Truteau, Joseph La Sablonnière and Louis L'Ecuyer, of Montreal; Baptiste Duclos, Baptiste Dubord and Laurent Roy of Pointe-aux-Trembles; François Bacqueville of Champlain; Baptiste Belhumeur, of Repentigny; Jean Parent of Pointe-Claire; André (illegible), of Lavaltrie; Hyacinthe Lafleur, of Saint-Leonard; Louis Leclerc of Saint-Lambert; Augustin Goulet of Saint-Sulpice; André Laperle of Laprairie; François Denio of Laprairie; Louis Duquet, Antoine Pain (?), Hubert (illegible); J.-B. Chaber, of Châteauguay; Charles Durand and Joseph Gauthier.de Lachine; Alexander (illegible), of the Isle of Jesus; Maurice (illegible), of Montreal; Michel Créqui (?), Joseph Chartier and Pierre Duverger, of Lotbinière.

• 1749, May 25, Permission of the Governor of the Galissonniere to Sieur Moniere to send from Montreal two canoes equipped with fourteen men under the direction of Antoine Lalonde to go to the post at La Baie. Defense not to make any business elsewhere than at the said post of La Baie and its dependencies. Role of the two canoes: Antoine Lalonde dit Latreille, guide, Louis Duquet B. Tabeau, Pierre Laviolette, Pierre Poureau (?), Of Pointe-Claire; Charles Dussault, François Huno and François Dagenest, of Lachine; René Lafantaisie, Basile Lalande, of Montreal; PierreBoileau.de l'Ile.Bizard; Louis Gagnier of Laprairie; Antoine Sansquartier, of Saint-Michel; Jean-Baptiste Fauteux, of Côte-des-Neiges.

• 1750, May 29, Permission of the governor of the Jonquiere to Sieur Laurent Bertrand, merchant, to leave Montreal, with a canoe equipped with six men to go to the station of Michillimakinac. Forbid Bertrand and his men to engage in any trade or commerce with the Indians or any other persons, except in the said post and its dependencies. Role of the engaged of the said canoe: Louis Duquet and Jacques Paré, of Châteauguay; Joseph Carrière and Charles Defond, of Montreal; Charles Senet of Pointe-aux-Trembles; Ignace Pente (?), Of Sorel.

• 1751, May 23, Engagement of Louis Duquet to Michel Parmier to go to michilimackinac

• 1752, Feb 28, Engagement of Louis Duquet to René De Couagne

• 1756, Apr 20, Engagement of Louis Duquet to Michelina Kinak

• 1768, Apr 24, Engagement of Louis Duquet to Joseph Perinault to go to michilimackinac.


Jérémie Duquet (1736–1771) (6th great-uncle)
son of Etienne Duquet dit Desrochers (1695–1762) and Marie-Françoise Deneau dit Destaillis (1698–1737)
BIRTH 20 JUL 1736 • Laprairie, Quebec
DEATH 1771 • Canada
Marriage 1765 to Marie Louise Dupuis (1743–1808)
• 1789, Jan 19, Engagement of Jérémie Duquet, voyageur from LaPrairie, to MCTAVISH, FROBISHER & CO. for one year, to go to Nord Ouest via Grand Portage.
• 1797, Aug 4, Engagement of Jérémie Duquet, voyageur from LaPrairie, to JACQUES & FRANCOIS LASSELLE for one year, to go to Detroit.

François Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1777–1846) (5th great-uncle)
son of Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono)(1733–1779) and Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)
BIRTH 22 OCT 1777 • La Prairie, Roussillon, Quebec, Canada
DEATH BEF. 1846
Marriage to Euphrosine Brosseau (1781–1846)
• 1802, Nov 30, Engagement of Francois Pinsonneau to Mactavish and Frobisher Co., to go to Nord-Ouest.


Louis Pinsonneau (1760-1831) (1st cousin 6x removed)
son of Rene Pinsonneau (1724-1793) and Marie Angelique Beaudin (Bodin) (1735-1788)
BIRTH ABT. 1760 • LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada
DEATH JANUARY 1831 • Cahokia, St. Clair County, Illinois, USA
Marriage unknown
• 1804, Mar 30, Engagement of Louis Pinsonneau of LaPrairie to Toussaint Pothier, to go to Illinois and Michilimackinac, 1 year, SECOND GOUVERNAIL. Notary Louis Chaboillez. M620/1201


Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

"Grand Portage" by CW Jeffreys

Introduction, Contents and Chapter One - La Prairie

Chapter Two - Our Earliest Fur Trade Ancestors

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Barrette Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Bourassa Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Boyer Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Deneau Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Diel Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Dupuis Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Duquet Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Gagne Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Leber Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Lemieux Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Migner dit Lagacé Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Perras Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Pinsonneau Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Poupart Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Vielle Family

Chapter Four, Voyageur Families of Trois-Rivières and Quebec

Chapter Four, Quebec's Amiot Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Beauchamp Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Cloutier Family & Jean Mignault dit Chatillon

Chapter Four, Quebec's Cusson Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Dardenne Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Desroches Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Godefroy Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Godet Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Miville Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Moreau Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Nepveu Family & Denise Sevestre

Chapter Four, Quebec's Picard Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Rivet Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Sedilot Family

Chapter Five, Miscellaneous Fur Trade Ancestors

Chapter Six - Ancestors in 1600s Fur Trade Timeline

Chapter Six - Ancestors 1700s Fur Trade Timeline

Chapter Seven, French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau

Appendix One - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots

About the Author

Bibliography

Endnotes

Ripples, Endnotes



Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes





by Jerry England
Echo Press, February 2017, Chatsworth, CA

In 2011, after researching his Passino ancestry for more than a dozen years, Jerry England made a breakthrough discovery when he learned the name had been anglicized from Pinsonneau.

In time he learned the Pinsonneau lineage in North America began in 1665, when 1,300 soldiers arrived with the Carignan-Salières Regiment in Nouvelle France (Canada) to fight the Iroquois.

His first Pinsonneau emigrant ancestor, François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646-1731), was a soldier in the Saint-Ours Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment. François arrived on the ship La Justice 14 September 1665. Further research revealed emigrant ancestors that arrived as early as 1626.

Still more research revealed a family tree filled with French-Canadian Voyageurs and Coureurs de bois. So far Jerry has documented well over a hundred French-Canadian ancestors linked to the fur trade between the 1620s and 1840s.

His voyageur ancestors traveled with Samuel de Champlain, Henri De Tonty, Pierre Gaultier de La Verendrye, Antoine de La Mothe Cadillac, Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson and Louis and Clark as they explored and mapped the North American continent.

All came from villages in the Province of Quebec. They came from the environs Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Montreal, but the vast majority were either born, married, or buried in La Prairie de la Magdeleine.

Return to beginning of book… http://laprairie-voyageur-canoes.blogspot.com/2017/03/ripples-introduction-contents-and.html

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes






Ripples, Bibliography

Bibliography


Introduction, Contents and Chapter One - La Prairie

• The Voyageurs [poem], by George Marsh, originally published by The Outing Magazine, Outing Publishing Co., 1910

• Crusaders of New France - A Chronicle of the Fleur-de-Lis in the Wilderness, Chronicles of America, by William Bennett Munro

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley

Chapter Two - Our Earliest Fur Trade Ancestors and How they Fit Together

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment

• Montreal 1535-1914 under the French Régime - Vol. 1, 1535-1760, by William Henry Atherton

• Fur trade canoe routes of Canada: Then and now, by EW Morse

• The voyageur, by Grace L Nute

• The Canoe, www.hbcheritage.ca/hbcheritage/history/transportation/canoe/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Barrette Family


• Family history notes throughout are from the Family Tree of Jerry England.
 

Here's a good place to say thank you again to Suzanne Boivin Sommerville, Diane Wolford Sheppard, and the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan for all the marvelous research they've done and the information they've made available on the world wide web.

• French-Canadian Exploration, Missionary Work, and Fur Trading in Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes, and Mississippi Valley During the 17th Century, Part 8 - 1686 to December 1694, habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/.../Part_8_-_1686_-_1694.363151106.pdf

• The French foundations, 1680-1693, by Theodore Calvin Pease

• Fur Trade Contracts during the French Regime, Researched by Diane Wolford Sheppard, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Fur_Trade_Contracts_during_the_French_Regime.29095438.pdf

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

• Rapport de l'Archiviste de la province de Québec - Collections {Quoted in all the following Chapters, collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2276288

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Bourassa Family

• Biography – BOURASSA, La Ronde, RENÉ – Volume IV (1771-1800), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/bourassa_rene_4E.html

• Charles Michel de Langlade, Wikipedia

• NISSOWAQUET (Nosawaguet, Sosawaket, La Fourche, Fork), Ottawa chief, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/nissowaquet_4E.html

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Boyer Family

• The North West Company, 1779–1821, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-north-west-company-17791821-feature/

• Biography – OAKES, FORREST – Volume IV (1771-1800),  www.biographi.ca/en/bio/oakes_forrest_4E.html

• Fur-trade on the upper lakes, 1778-1815, Library of Congress, https://cdn.loc.gov/service/gdc/lhbum/7689h/7689h_0273_0426.pdf

• Historic Forts and Trading Posts, by Ernest Voorhis, www.gedc.ca/upload/.../historic-forts-and-trading-posts-1930-ernest-voorhis.pdf

• National Historic Cairn - Fort Vermilion Heritage Centre, www.fortvermilionheritage.ca/national_history.htm

• Making the Voyageur World: Travelers and Traders in the North American Fur Trade, by Carolyn Podruchny

• The English River Book: A North West Company Journal and Account Book of 1786, By North West Company, by Harry W. Duckworth

• Rainy River Country: A Brief History of the Region Bordering Minnesota and Ontario, by Grace Lee Nute
• Lines Drawn Upon the Water: First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands, by Karl S. Hele

• Forrest Oakes, Charles Boyer, Joseph Fulton, and Peter Pangman in the Northwest, 1765-1793, by Arthur S. Morton

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Deneau Family

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Diel Family

• Timeline - Part 6 - 1674 - December 1681, French-Canadian Heritage, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/GL_Timeline_-_part_6_-_1674_-_December_1681.2734112.pdf

• Charles Diel 1, Our first Canadian Ancestor, www.guiel.com/genealogy/charlesdiel1.htm

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Dupuis Family

• Narratives and identities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720, by Linda Breuer Gray

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Duquet Family

• Tadoussac, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadoussac

• Biography – DUQUET DE LA CHESNAYE, PIERRE – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/duquet_de_la_chesnaye_pierre_1E.html

• Biography – COUTURE, GUILLAUME (d. 1701) – Volume II (1701), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/couture_guillaume_1701_2E.html?print=1

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Gagne Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Leber Family

• Narratives and identities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720, by Linda Breuer Gray

• LeBer-LeMoyne House, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeBer-LeMoyne_House

• LE BER, JACQUES - Dictionary of Canadian Biography, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/le_ber_jacques_2E.html


Chapter Three - La Prairie's Lemieux Family

• Sovereign Council of New France, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_Council_of_New_France

• Canada the Good: A Short History of Vice since 1500, by Marcel Martel

• Timeline of Quebec, Jean Provencher AND People's History of Quebec, by Jacques Lacoursière

• THE LIFE OF NEW FRANCE 1663-1760, by David H. Bergeron

• French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan - The Fur Trade in New France, www.habitantheritage.org/french-canadian_resources/the_fur_trade

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Migner dit Lagacé Family

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment
• Great Granddad was a French Sharpshooter, http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/09/great-granddad-was-french-sharpshooter.html

• Arrival of the Carignan-Salières regiment - CBC, http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP2CH7PA3LE.html

• André Migner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9_Migner

• Prologue to Lewis and Clark: The Mackay and Evans Expedition, by W. Raymond Wood

• Jean-Baptiste Trudeau on the upper Missouri (1794-1796), his journal, by Jean-Baptiste Trudeau

• French-Canadian Trappers of the American Plains and Rockies, by Tangi Villerbu

• Archaeology at French colonial Cahokia, by Bonnie L. Gums

• Before Lewis and Clark: Documents Illustrating the History of the Missouri, 1785-1804, edited by Abraham Phineas Nasatir

• New light on the early history of the greater Northwest: the manuscript journals of Alexander Henry, fur trader of the Northwest Company and of David Thompson, official geographer of the same company 1799-1814, AND from Lives Lived West of the Divide: A Biographical Dictionary of Fur Traders. Working West of the Rockies, 1793-1858, by Bruce McIntyre Watson

• Parkways of the Canadian Rockies: A Touring Guide to Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, by Brian Patton

• The Travels of David Thompson 1784-1812, Volume II Foothills and Forests, by Sean T. Peake

• Historic Hikes in Northern Yoho National Park, by Emerson Sanford, by Janice Sanford Beck

• The First Explorers of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, by J. Neilson Barry

• The Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul., 1920, David Thompson's Journeys in Idaho (Continued), by T. C. Elliott

• Alexander Henry 'The Younger' (1765 - 22 May 1814), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Henry_the_younger

• David Thompson (explorer), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Thompson_(explorer)

• New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry and of David Thompson, 1799-1814, by Alexander Henry and, David Thompson, edited by Elliott Coues.

• Hudson's Bay Company Archives, https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/archives/hbca/resource/index.html?print

• The Environment and the Fur Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park, http://npshistory.com/publications/voya/fur-trade-experience.pdf

• Fort Lac la Pluie - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Lac_la_Pluie

• From Things Left Behind - National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/voya/learn/historyculture/upload/FromThings%20Left%20Behind.pdf

• What is a Dit Name?, https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-dit-name-3972358

• King's Daughters - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King's_Daughters

• THE NORTH WEST COMPANY, by Marjorie Wilkins Campbell, https://archive.org/stream/northwestcompany001509mbp/northwestcompany001509mbp_djvu.txt

Chapter Three - Perras Family

• Pierre Peras dit Lafontaine (Family Search), https://familysearch.org/photos/artifacts/4211946

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - Pinsonneau Family

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment

• Two Carignan-Salières Soldiers and a Pair of Filles Du Roi, http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/two-carignan-salieres-soldiers-and-pair.html

• History of Monroe County, Michigan, https://archive.org/stream/historyofmonroec00wing/historyofmonroec00wing_djvu.txt

• History of Old Vincennes and Knox County, Indiana, https://archive.org/stream/historyofoldvinc01gree/historyofoldvinc01gree_djvu.txt

• Treaty of Greenville - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Greenville

• Letter to Thomas Jefferson from Jacques Lasselle, 12 June 1806, http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/default.xqy?keys=FOEA-print-04-01-02-3833&mode=deref

• Superior Rendezvous-Place: Fort William in the Canadian Fur Trade, by Jean Morrison

• Kakabeka Falls - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakabeka_Falls

Chapter Three - Poupart Family

• Biography – DAUMONT DE SAINT-LUSSON, SIMON-FRANÇOIS, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/daumont_de_saint_lusson_simon_francois_1E.html

• A history of Minnesota, https://archive.org/.../historyofminneso01folwuoft/historyofminneso01folwuoft_djvu.txt

• Biography – PERROT, NICOLAS – Volume II (1701-1740), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/perrot_nicolas_2E.html

• Nicolas Perrot - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Perrot

• French-Canadian Exploration, Missionary Work, and Fur Trading in Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes, and Mississippi Valley During the 17th Century - Part 6 1674 to December 1681, by Diane Wolford Sheppard

• Nicolas Perrot: French Fur Trade in Wisconsin | Wisconsin Historical, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294963805&dsRecordDetails=R:CS541

• The French régime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, https://archive.org/stream/frenchrgimeinwis00kell/frenchrgimeinwis00kell_djvu.txt

Chapter Three - Vielle Family

• Biography – MACKENZIE, Sir ALEXANDER – Volume V (1801-1820), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mackenzie_alexander_5E.html

• Lives Lived West of the Divide: A Biographical Dictionary, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~goudied/PDF/Goudie/Lives_Lived_Entire-Bruce-McIntyre-Watson.pdf

• The North West Company, 1779–1821, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-north-west-company-17791821-feature/

Chapter Four - Amiot Family

• Biography – AMIOT (Amyot), JEAN – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/amiot_jean_1E.html

• Henri de Tonti - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_de_Tonti

• René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/René-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle

• 17th Century Fur-Trade and Military-Expedition Families, by Diane Wolford Sheppard, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Fur_Trade_and_Military_Expedition_Families.275153206.pdf

• Michilimackinac Families – d'Ailleboust to Amiot, by Michel  LePallieur and Diane Wolford Sheppard, habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/.../Ailleboust_to_Amiot.31111207.pdf

• Biography – AMIOT, JEAN-BAPTISTE (fl. 1720-63) – Volume III (1741), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/amiot_jean_baptiste_1720_63_3E.html

• Technological Adaptation on the Frontier: An Examination of Blacksmithing at Fort Michilimackinac, 1715-1781, by Amy S. Roache-Fedchenko, Syracuse University

•  1747a Inventory of Goods Furnished by Order of Louis De La Corne, 13 June. by Jean-Baptiste Amiot, National Archives of Canada, Series C11A, Vol. 117 (MG 1/3, Vol. 141), microfilm C - 2408, Ottawa.
• 1747b Inventory of Goods Furnished by Order of M. De Noyelle, 13 August. by Jean-Baptiste Amiot, National Archives of Canada, Series C11A, Vol. 117, (MG 1/3, 140), microfilm C - 2408, Ottawa.

• Gunsmithing at Michilimackinac: Jean-Baptiste Amiot, a Blacksmith at Michilimackinac. by David Armour, 1976, In, Firearms on the Frontier ed. Hamilton, pp.25 - 31. Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac Island State Park Commission.

Chapter Four - Beauchamp Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Ripples, Chapter Four, Cloutier Family

• Jean MIGNOT MIGNEAULT, www.leveillee.net/ancestry/d533.htm

• Biography – CLOUTIER, ZACHARIE – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/cloutier_zacharie_1F.html

• The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791, https://archive.org/stream/jesuits73jesuuoft/jesuits73jesuuoft_djvu.txt

Chapter Four - Cusson Family

• Jean Cusson - WorldConnect Project, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=rnelsonla&id=I0711

• History of Detroit, https://en.wykipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Detroit

• Notary Transaction for Detroit, 27 May 1701 (Present were Messieurs Jean Bochart, chevalier, Seigneur de Champigny and Noroy), habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site.../1701_Convoys_2014_-_Suzanne.14171832.pdf

• Cusson (pioneers) in-laws of Ange Lefebvre-aka-Descoteaux, By Janet Manseau, http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/lefebvre/1368/

Chapter Four - Dardenne Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Deroches Family

• Nicolas Perrot: French Fur Trade in Wisconsin, by Wisconsin Historical Society, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294963805&dsRecordDetails=R:CS541

• Biography – PERROT, NICOLAS – Volume II (1701-1740), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/perrot_nicolas_2E.html

• The French régime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, https://archive.org/stream/frenchrgimeinwis00kell/frenchrgimeinwis00kell_djvu.txt

• Grand Portage As A Trading Post - National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/grpo1/fur_trade.pdf

Chapter Four - Godefroy Family

• Biography – GODEFROY DE NORMANVILLE, THOMAS – Volume I, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/godefroy_de_normanville_thomas_1E.html

• Biography – GODEFROY DE LINTOT, JEAN – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/godefroy_de_lintot_jean_1E.html

Chapter Four - Godet Family

•  Biography – SAINT-PÈRE, JEAN DE – Volume I (1000-1700), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/saint_pere_jean_de_1E.html

Chapter Four - Miville Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Moreau Family

• Why I’ll Drive an Oldsmobile but never a Cadillac or The Adventures of Louis Durand, Joseph Moreau and Sieur Antoine Laumet de La Mothe Cadillac,  by Roger Durand, Reprinted with permission from vol 18 #3, July 1997, in The Journal of the http://www.habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Articles_in_Michigans_Habitant_Heritage-_6_April_2015.95104411.pdf

• Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. I, 1000-1700, Canada, University of Toronto Press and Les Presses de l’universite Laval, 1966

• Jean Durand and His Descendants, Theophile W. Denomme, Michigan Habitant Heritage, Vol. 17 #2, Apr., 1996

• Jean Durand dit LaFortune and his descendants, by Durand, Elden, Durand: manuscript, Kentucky, 1944

• Jean Durand et sa Posteritie, L’ Association des Familles Durand, Inc., by Joseph Durand, C.S.V., Viateur Durand, C.S.V., Montreal, 1954

• Our French-Canadian Ancestors, Palm Harbor, Fl, 1993, by Thomas J. Laforest, Margry Jacques Saintonge, Origines francaise, t. V. CXXII

• France and England in North America, Volume I, by Francis Parkman, New York, Viking Press, 1983

•  A Source-book of Canadian History, by J. H. Reid, Stewart, Kenneth McNaught, Harry S. Crowe, Toronto, Longmans Canada Limited, 1959

• The Legend of Louis Durand Early French Canadian Voyageur, by Mike Durand, http://www.durandfoundation.com/archives/stories/theleg.html

Chapter Four - Nepveu (Neveu) Family

• Biography – NEVEU, JEAN-BAPTISTE – Volume III (1741-1770), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/neveu_jean_baptiste_3E.html

• Great-aunt Denise was a Mother of Voyageurs, a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

• Part 5 - French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan, www.habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/.../Filles_du_Roi_-_Part_5.5095042.pdf

• Part 2 [2014 Version] Étienne Véron de Grandmesnil, Father and Son, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docsRush_to_Judgment_Part_2_-_Veron_de_Grandmesnil_father_and_son_-_2014.11151854.pdf

• The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History, by Harold Adams Innis

Chapter Four - Picard Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Rivet Family

• The Mountain men and the fur trade of the far West, by LeRoy Reuben Hafen

• Sign-Talker: The Adventure of George Drouillard on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by James Alexander Thom

• The Travels of David Thompson 1784-1812: Volume II Foothills and Forests 1798-1806, To the Pacific and Return 1807-1812, by Sean T. Peake

• French Canadians, Furs, and Indigenous Women in the Making of the Pacific Northwest. by Jean Barman

• By Honor and Right: How One Man Boldly Defined the Destiny of a Nation, by John C. Jackson

• The Intrepid Voyageurs - Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, www.lewisandclark.org/wpo/pdf/vol38no1.pdf

• Collections - State Historical Society of Wisconsin - Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/collectionsstate16stat

• Oregon Trail Timeline 1792-1815, http://www.oregon.com/attractions/oregon-trail-timeline-1792-1815

• NAMES OF PEOPLE IN THE WEST, DURING THE FUR TRADE, https://user.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/names/names.html

Chapter Four - Sedilot (Sédillot) Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Five - Voyageur Ancestors, Miscellaneous

• Andre' Robidoux dit Espagnol, by Hugh M. Lewis, http://www.lewismicropublishing.com/Publications/Robidoux/RobidouxAndre.htm

• Biography – GAGNON (Gaingnon, Gangnon, Gaignon), MATHURIN, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/gagnon_mathurin_1E.html

• Robidoux Chronicles: Ethnohistory of the French-American Fur Trade, by Hugh M. Lewis

Chapter Six - Voyageur Ancestors in Fur Trade Timeline

History of the Fur Trade – White Oak Society, http://whiteoakhistoricalsociety.org/historical-library/fur-trade/time-line-a-brief-history-of-the-fur-trade/

Chapter Seven - French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau

• 1850 US Federal Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Passinault, age 47 (1803), born Canada Mary Passinault, age 40 (1810), born Canada

• 1850 New York Agriculture Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Passano

• 1860 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Gilbert Passino, age 57 (1803), born Canada Mary Passino, age 55 (1805), born Canada

• 1864 Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York Land Owner Map G. Pasino

• 1870 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Gilbert Pasnan, age 68 (1802), born Canada Mary Pasnan, age 62 (1808), born Canada

• 1870 New York Agriculture Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Pasnan

• 1877 He is Gilbert Passino in an obituary published in the Carthage Republican (New York)

• 1877 The name Gilbert Passino is on his headstone in Pierce Cemetery, Wilna (Fort Drum), Jefferson Co., New York.

• French connection -- From street signs to surnames, French-Canadian influence on region manifests itself in many distinct ways, By Robin Caudell Staff Writer, Press Republican newspaper (Plattsburgh, New York), 24 Nov 2002

• Birth: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967: Gabriel Pinsonneau, Event Year: 1801-1805, Event: Naissance (Birth), Religion: Catholique, Place of Worship: La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Province: Québec

• Marriage: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967: Gabriel Pinsonault, Spouse: Marie Emilie Lagasse, Event Year: 1824, Event: Mariage (Marriage), Religion: Catholique, Place of Worship: Châteauguay

Chapter Eight - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots

• List of fur trading post and forts in North America, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fur_trading_post_and_forts_in_North_America

• The French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan (Voyageur contracts) http://habitantheritage.org/french-canadian_resources/the_fur_trade

• Caesars of the Wilderness: Médard Chouart, Sieur Des Groseilliers and Pierre Esprit Radisson, 1618-1710, by Grace Lee Nute


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