Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

"Grand Portage" by CW Jeffreys

Introduction, Contents and Chapter One - La Prairie

Chapter Two - Our Earliest Fur Trade Ancestors

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Barrette Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Bourassa Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Boyer Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Deneau Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Diel Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Dupuis Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Duquet Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Gagne Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Leber Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Lemieux Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Migner dit Lagacé Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Perras Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Pinsonneau Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Poupart Family

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Vielle Family

Chapter Four, Voyageur Families of Trois-Rivières and Quebec

Chapter Four, Quebec's Amiot Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Beauchamp Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Cloutier Family & Jean Mignault dit Chatillon

Chapter Four, Quebec's Cusson Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Dardenne Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Desroches Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Godefroy Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Godet Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Miville Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Moreau Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Nepveu Family & Denise Sevestre

Chapter Four, Quebec's Picard Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Rivet Family

Chapter Four, Quebec's Sedilot Family

Chapter Five, Miscellaneous Fur Trade Ancestors

Chapter Six - Ancestors in 1600s Fur Trade Timeline

Chapter Six - Ancestors 1700s Fur Trade Timeline

Chapter Seven, French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau

Appendix One - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots

About the Author

Bibliography

Endnotes

Ripples, Endnotes



Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes





by Jerry England
Echo Press, February 2017, Chatsworth, CA

In 2011, after researching his Passino ancestry for more than a dozen years, Jerry England made a breakthrough discovery when he learned the name had been anglicized from Pinsonneau.

In time he learned the Pinsonneau lineage in North America began in 1665, when 1,300 soldiers arrived with the Carignan-Salières Regiment in Nouvelle France (Canada) to fight the Iroquois.

His first Pinsonneau emigrant ancestor, François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646-1731), was a soldier in the Saint-Ours Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment. François arrived on the ship La Justice 14 September 1665. Further research revealed emigrant ancestors that arrived as early as 1626.

Still more research revealed a family tree filled with French-Canadian Voyageurs and Coureurs de bois. So far Jerry has documented well over a hundred French-Canadian ancestors linked to the fur trade between the 1620s and 1840s.

His voyageur ancestors traveled with Samuel de Champlain, Henri De Tonty, Pierre Gaultier de La Verendrye, Antoine de La Mothe Cadillac, Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson and Louis and Clark as they explored and mapped the North American continent.

All came from villages in the Province of Quebec. They came from the environs Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Montreal, but the vast majority were either born, married, or buried in La Prairie de la Magdeleine.

Return to beginning of book… http://laprairie-voyageur-canoes.blogspot.com/2017/03/ripples-introduction-contents-and.html

Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes






Ripples, Bibliography

Bibliography


Introduction, Contents and Chapter One - La Prairie

• The Voyageurs [poem], by George Marsh, originally published by The Outing Magazine, Outing Publishing Co., 1910

• Crusaders of New France - A Chronicle of the Fleur-de-Lis in the Wilderness, Chronicles of America, by William Bennett Munro

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley

Chapter Two - Our Earliest Fur Trade Ancestors and How they Fit Together

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment

• Montreal 1535-1914 under the French Régime - Vol. 1, 1535-1760, by William Henry Atherton

• Fur trade canoe routes of Canada: Then and now, by EW Morse

• The voyageur, by Grace L Nute

• The Canoe, www.hbcheritage.ca/hbcheritage/history/transportation/canoe/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Barrette Family


• Family history notes throughout are from the Family Tree of Jerry England.
 

Here's a good place to say thank you again to Suzanne Boivin Sommerville, Diane Wolford Sheppard, and the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan for all the marvelous research they've done and the information they've made available on the world wide web.

• French-Canadian Exploration, Missionary Work, and Fur Trading in Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes, and Mississippi Valley During the 17th Century, Part 8 - 1686 to December 1694, habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/.../Part_8_-_1686_-_1694.363151106.pdf

• The French foundations, 1680-1693, by Theodore Calvin Pease

• Fur Trade Contracts during the French Regime, Researched by Diane Wolford Sheppard, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Fur_Trade_Contracts_during_the_French_Regime.29095438.pdf

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

• Rapport de l'Archiviste de la province de Québec - Collections {Quoted in all the following Chapters, collections.banq.qc.ca/ark:/52327/2276288

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Bourassa Family

• Biography – BOURASSA, La Ronde, RENÉ – Volume IV (1771-1800), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/bourassa_rene_4E.html

• Charles Michel de Langlade, Wikipedia

• NISSOWAQUET (Nosawaguet, Sosawaket, La Fourche, Fork), Ottawa chief, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/nissowaquet_4E.html

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Boyer Family

• The North West Company, 1779–1821, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-north-west-company-17791821-feature/

• Biography – OAKES, FORREST – Volume IV (1771-1800),  www.biographi.ca/en/bio/oakes_forrest_4E.html

• Fur-trade on the upper lakes, 1778-1815, Library of Congress, https://cdn.loc.gov/service/gdc/lhbum/7689h/7689h_0273_0426.pdf

• Historic Forts and Trading Posts, by Ernest Voorhis, www.gedc.ca/upload/.../historic-forts-and-trading-posts-1930-ernest-voorhis.pdf

• National Historic Cairn - Fort Vermilion Heritage Centre, www.fortvermilionheritage.ca/national_history.htm

• Making the Voyageur World: Travelers and Traders in the North American Fur Trade, by Carolyn Podruchny

• The English River Book: A North West Company Journal and Account Book of 1786, By North West Company, by Harry W. Duckworth

• Rainy River Country: A Brief History of the Region Bordering Minnesota and Ontario, by Grace Lee Nute
• Lines Drawn Upon the Water: First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands, by Karl S. Hele

• Forrest Oakes, Charles Boyer, Joseph Fulton, and Peter Pangman in the Northwest, 1765-1793, by Arthur S. Morton

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Deneau Family

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Diel Family

• Timeline - Part 6 - 1674 - December 1681, French-Canadian Heritage, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/GL_Timeline_-_part_6_-_1674_-_December_1681.2734112.pdf

• Charles Diel 1, Our first Canadian Ancestor, www.guiel.com/genealogy/charlesdiel1.htm

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Dupuis Family

• Narratives and identities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720, by Linda Breuer Gray

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Duquet Family

• Tadoussac, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadoussac

• Biography – DUQUET DE LA CHESNAYE, PIERRE – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/duquet_de_la_chesnaye_pierre_1E.html

• Biography – COUTURE, GUILLAUME (d. 1701) – Volume II (1701), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/couture_guillaume_1701_2E.html?print=1

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Gagne Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Leber Family

• Narratives and identities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720, by Linda Breuer Gray

• LeBer-LeMoyne House, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeBer-LeMoyne_House

• LE BER, JACQUES - Dictionary of Canadian Biography, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/le_ber_jacques_2E.html


Chapter Three - La Prairie's Lemieux Family

• Sovereign Council of New France, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_Council_of_New_France

• Canada the Good: A Short History of Vice since 1500, by Marcel Martel

• Timeline of Quebec, Jean Provencher AND People's History of Quebec, by Jacques Lacoursière

• THE LIFE OF NEW FRANCE 1663-1760, by David H. Bergeron

• French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan - The Fur Trade in New France, www.habitantheritage.org/french-canadian_resources/the_fur_trade

Chapter Three - La Prairie's Migner dit Lagacé Family

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment
• Great Granddad was a French Sharpshooter, http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/09/great-granddad-was-french-sharpshooter.html

• Arrival of the Carignan-Salières regiment - CBC, http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP2CH7PA3LE.html

• André Migner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9_Migner

• Prologue to Lewis and Clark: The Mackay and Evans Expedition, by W. Raymond Wood

• Jean-Baptiste Trudeau on the upper Missouri (1794-1796), his journal, by Jean-Baptiste Trudeau

• French-Canadian Trappers of the American Plains and Rockies, by Tangi Villerbu

• Archaeology at French colonial Cahokia, by Bonnie L. Gums

• Before Lewis and Clark: Documents Illustrating the History of the Missouri, 1785-1804, edited by Abraham Phineas Nasatir

• New light on the early history of the greater Northwest: the manuscript journals of Alexander Henry, fur trader of the Northwest Company and of David Thompson, official geographer of the same company 1799-1814, AND from Lives Lived West of the Divide: A Biographical Dictionary of Fur Traders. Working West of the Rockies, 1793-1858, by Bruce McIntyre Watson

• Parkways of the Canadian Rockies: A Touring Guide to Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, by Brian Patton

• The Travels of David Thompson 1784-1812, Volume II Foothills and Forests, by Sean T. Peake

• Historic Hikes in Northern Yoho National Park, by Emerson Sanford, by Janice Sanford Beck

• The First Explorers of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, by J. Neilson Barry

• The Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul., 1920, David Thompson's Journeys in Idaho (Continued), by T. C. Elliott

• Alexander Henry 'The Younger' (1765 - 22 May 1814), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Henry_the_younger

• David Thompson (explorer), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Thompson_(explorer)

• New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry and of David Thompson, 1799-1814, by Alexander Henry and, David Thompson, edited by Elliott Coues.

• Hudson's Bay Company Archives, https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/archives/hbca/resource/index.html?print

• The Environment and the Fur Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park, http://npshistory.com/publications/voya/fur-trade-experience.pdf

• Fort Lac la Pluie - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Lac_la_Pluie

• From Things Left Behind - National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/voya/learn/historyculture/upload/FromThings%20Left%20Behind.pdf

• What is a Dit Name?, https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-dit-name-3972358

• King's Daughters - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King's_Daughters

• THE NORTH WEST COMPANY, by Marjorie Wilkins Campbell, https://archive.org/stream/northwestcompany001509mbp/northwestcompany001509mbp_djvu.txt

Chapter Three - Perras Family

• Pierre Peras dit Lafontaine (Family Search), https://familysearch.org/photos/artifacts/4211946

• Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley, http://fahfminn.org/books/

Chapter Three - Pinsonneau Family

• Carignan-Salières Regiment, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carignan-Sali%C3%A8res_Regiment

• Two Carignan-Salières Soldiers and a Pair of Filles Du Roi, http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/two-carignan-salieres-soldiers-and-pair.html

• History of Monroe County, Michigan, https://archive.org/stream/historyofmonroec00wing/historyofmonroec00wing_djvu.txt

• History of Old Vincennes and Knox County, Indiana, https://archive.org/stream/historyofoldvinc01gree/historyofoldvinc01gree_djvu.txt

• Treaty of Greenville - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Greenville

• Letter to Thomas Jefferson from Jacques Lasselle, 12 June 1806, http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/default.xqy?keys=FOEA-print-04-01-02-3833&mode=deref

• Superior Rendezvous-Place: Fort William in the Canadian Fur Trade, by Jean Morrison

• Kakabeka Falls - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakabeka_Falls

Chapter Three - Poupart Family

• Biography – DAUMONT DE SAINT-LUSSON, SIMON-FRANÇOIS, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/daumont_de_saint_lusson_simon_francois_1E.html

• A history of Minnesota, https://archive.org/.../historyofminneso01folwuoft/historyofminneso01folwuoft_djvu.txt

• Biography – PERROT, NICOLAS – Volume II (1701-1740), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/perrot_nicolas_2E.html

• Nicolas Perrot - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Perrot

• French-Canadian Exploration, Missionary Work, and Fur Trading in Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes, and Mississippi Valley During the 17th Century - Part 6 1674 to December 1681, by Diane Wolford Sheppard

• Nicolas Perrot: French Fur Trade in Wisconsin | Wisconsin Historical, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294963805&dsRecordDetails=R:CS541

• The French régime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, https://archive.org/stream/frenchrgimeinwis00kell/frenchrgimeinwis00kell_djvu.txt

Chapter Three - Vielle Family

• Biography – MACKENZIE, Sir ALEXANDER – Volume V (1801-1820), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mackenzie_alexander_5E.html

• Lives Lived West of the Divide: A Biographical Dictionary, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~goudied/PDF/Goudie/Lives_Lived_Entire-Bruce-McIntyre-Watson.pdf

• The North West Company, 1779–1821, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-north-west-company-17791821-feature/

Chapter Four - Amiot Family

• Biography – AMIOT (Amyot), JEAN – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/amiot_jean_1E.html

• Henri de Tonti - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_de_Tonti

• René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle - Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/René-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle

• 17th Century Fur-Trade and Military-Expedition Families, by Diane Wolford Sheppard, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Fur_Trade_and_Military_Expedition_Families.275153206.pdf

• Michilimackinac Families – d'Ailleboust to Amiot, by Michel  LePallieur and Diane Wolford Sheppard, habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/.../Ailleboust_to_Amiot.31111207.pdf

• Biography – AMIOT, JEAN-BAPTISTE (fl. 1720-63) – Volume III (1741), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/amiot_jean_baptiste_1720_63_3E.html

• Technological Adaptation on the Frontier: An Examination of Blacksmithing at Fort Michilimackinac, 1715-1781, by Amy S. Roache-Fedchenko, Syracuse University

•  1747a Inventory of Goods Furnished by Order of Louis De La Corne, 13 June. by Jean-Baptiste Amiot, National Archives of Canada, Series C11A, Vol. 117 (MG 1/3, Vol. 141), microfilm C - 2408, Ottawa.
• 1747b Inventory of Goods Furnished by Order of M. De Noyelle, 13 August. by Jean-Baptiste Amiot, National Archives of Canada, Series C11A, Vol. 117, (MG 1/3, 140), microfilm C - 2408, Ottawa.

• Gunsmithing at Michilimackinac: Jean-Baptiste Amiot, a Blacksmith at Michilimackinac. by David Armour, 1976, In, Firearms on the Frontier ed. Hamilton, pp.25 - 31. Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac Island State Park Commission.

Chapter Four - Beauchamp Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Ripples, Chapter Four, Cloutier Family

• Jean MIGNOT MIGNEAULT, www.leveillee.net/ancestry/d533.htm

• Biography – CLOUTIER, ZACHARIE – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/cloutier_zacharie_1F.html

• The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791, https://archive.org/stream/jesuits73jesuuoft/jesuits73jesuuoft_djvu.txt

Chapter Four - Cusson Family

• Jean Cusson - WorldConnect Project, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=rnelsonla&id=I0711

• History of Detroit, https://en.wykipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Detroit

• Notary Transaction for Detroit, 27 May 1701 (Present were Messieurs Jean Bochart, chevalier, Seigneur de Champigny and Noroy), habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site.../1701_Convoys_2014_-_Suzanne.14171832.pdf

• Cusson (pioneers) in-laws of Ange Lefebvre-aka-Descoteaux, By Janet Manseau, http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/lefebvre/1368/

Chapter Four - Dardenne Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Deroches Family

• Nicolas Perrot: French Fur Trade in Wisconsin, by Wisconsin Historical Society, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294963805&dsRecordDetails=R:CS541

• Biography – PERROT, NICOLAS – Volume II (1701-1740), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/perrot_nicolas_2E.html

• The French régime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, https://archive.org/stream/frenchrgimeinwis00kell/frenchrgimeinwis00kell_djvu.txt

• Grand Portage As A Trading Post - National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/grpo1/fur_trade.pdf

Chapter Four - Godefroy Family

• Biography – GODEFROY DE NORMANVILLE, THOMAS – Volume I, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/godefroy_de_normanville_thomas_1E.html

• Biography – GODEFROY DE LINTOT, JEAN – Volume I (1000-1700), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/godefroy_de_lintot_jean_1E.html

Chapter Four - Godet Family

•  Biography – SAINT-PÈRE, JEAN DE – Volume I (1000-1700), http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/saint_pere_jean_de_1E.html

Chapter Four - Miville Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Moreau Family

• Why I’ll Drive an Oldsmobile but never a Cadillac or The Adventures of Louis Durand, Joseph Moreau and Sieur Antoine Laumet de La Mothe Cadillac,  by Roger Durand, Reprinted with permission from vol 18 #3, July 1997, in The Journal of the http://www.habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Articles_in_Michigans_Habitant_Heritage-_6_April_2015.95104411.pdf

• Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. I, 1000-1700, Canada, University of Toronto Press and Les Presses de l’universite Laval, 1966

• Jean Durand and His Descendants, Theophile W. Denomme, Michigan Habitant Heritage, Vol. 17 #2, Apr., 1996

• Jean Durand dit LaFortune and his descendants, by Durand, Elden, Durand: manuscript, Kentucky, 1944

• Jean Durand et sa Posteritie, L’ Association des Familles Durand, Inc., by Joseph Durand, C.S.V., Viateur Durand, C.S.V., Montreal, 1954

• Our French-Canadian Ancestors, Palm Harbor, Fl, 1993, by Thomas J. Laforest, Margry Jacques Saintonge, Origines francaise, t. V. CXXII

• France and England in North America, Volume I, by Francis Parkman, New York, Viking Press, 1983

•  A Source-book of Canadian History, by J. H. Reid, Stewart, Kenneth McNaught, Harry S. Crowe, Toronto, Longmans Canada Limited, 1959

• The Legend of Louis Durand Early French Canadian Voyageur, by Mike Durand, http://www.durandfoundation.com/archives/stories/theleg.html

Chapter Four - Nepveu (Neveu) Family

• Biography – NEVEU, JEAN-BAPTISTE – Volume III (1741-1770), www.biographi.ca/en/bio/neveu_jean_baptiste_3E.html

• Great-aunt Denise was a Mother of Voyageurs, a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

• Part 5 - French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan, www.habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/.../Filles_du_Roi_-_Part_5.5095042.pdf

• Part 2 [2014 Version] Étienne Véron de Grandmesnil, Father and Son, http://habitantheritage.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docsRush_to_Judgment_Part_2_-_Veron_de_Grandmesnil_father_and_son_-_2014.11151854.pdf

• The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History, by Harold Adams Innis

Chapter Four - Picard Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Four - Rivet Family

• The Mountain men and the fur trade of the far West, by LeRoy Reuben Hafen

• Sign-Talker: The Adventure of George Drouillard on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by James Alexander Thom

• The Travels of David Thompson 1784-1812: Volume II Foothills and Forests 1798-1806, To the Pacific and Return 1807-1812, by Sean T. Peake

• French Canadians, Furs, and Indigenous Women in the Making of the Pacific Northwest. by Jean Barman

• By Honor and Right: How One Man Boldly Defined the Destiny of a Nation, by John C. Jackson

• The Intrepid Voyageurs - Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, www.lewisandclark.org/wpo/pdf/vol38no1.pdf

• Collections - State Historical Society of Wisconsin - Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/collectionsstate16stat

• Oregon Trail Timeline 1792-1815, http://www.oregon.com/attractions/oregon-trail-timeline-1792-1815

• NAMES OF PEOPLE IN THE WEST, DURING THE FUR TRADE, https://user.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/names/names.html

Chapter Four - Sedilot (Sédillot) Family

• Voyageur Contracts Database {Quoted in all the following Chapters | La Société historique de Saint-Boniface, http://shsb.mb.ca/en/Voyageurs_database

Chapter Five - Voyageur Ancestors, Miscellaneous

• Andre' Robidoux dit Espagnol, by Hugh M. Lewis, http://www.lewismicropublishing.com/Publications/Robidoux/RobidouxAndre.htm

• Biography – GAGNON (Gaingnon, Gangnon, Gaignon), MATHURIN, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/gagnon_mathurin_1E.html

• Robidoux Chronicles: Ethnohistory of the French-American Fur Trade, by Hugh M. Lewis

Chapter Six - Voyageur Ancestors in Fur Trade Timeline

History of the Fur Trade – White Oak Society, http://whiteoakhistoricalsociety.org/historical-library/fur-trade/time-line-a-brief-history-of-the-fur-trade/

Chapter Seven - French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau

• 1850 US Federal Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Passinault, age 47 (1803), born Canada Mary Passinault, age 40 (1810), born Canada

• 1850 New York Agriculture Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Passano

• 1860 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Gilbert Passino, age 57 (1803), born Canada Mary Passino, age 55 (1805), born Canada

• 1864 Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York Land Owner Map G. Pasino

• 1870 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Gilbert Pasnan, age 68 (1802), born Canada Mary Pasnan, age 62 (1808), born Canada

• 1870 New York Agriculture Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York: Givarow Pasnan

• 1877 He is Gilbert Passino in an obituary published in the Carthage Republican (New York)

• 1877 The name Gilbert Passino is on his headstone in Pierce Cemetery, Wilna (Fort Drum), Jefferson Co., New York.

• French connection -- From street signs to surnames, French-Canadian influence on region manifests itself in many distinct ways, By Robin Caudell Staff Writer, Press Republican newspaper (Plattsburgh, New York), 24 Nov 2002

• Birth: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967: Gabriel Pinsonneau, Event Year: 1801-1805, Event: Naissance (Birth), Religion: Catholique, Place of Worship: La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Province: Québec

• Marriage: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967: Gabriel Pinsonault, Spouse: Marie Emilie Lagasse, Event Year: 1824, Event: Mariage (Marriage), Religion: Catholique, Place of Worship: Châteauguay

Chapter Eight - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots

• List of fur trading post and forts in North America, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fur_trading_post_and_forts_in_North_America

• The French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan (Voyageur contracts) http://habitantheritage.org/french-canadian_resources/the_fur_trade

• Caesars of the Wilderness: Médard Chouart, Sieur Des Groseilliers and Pierre Esprit Radisson, 1618-1710, by Grace Lee Nute


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Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes


Ripples, About the Author

About the Author

 




Jerry England is a family historian, canoeist and writer who lives in Chatsworth, California.

Since 2011, he has written a blog titled, "A Drifting Cowboy Blogspot."  The stated goal for writing his blog is, "to leave to my grandsons the answers to the questions I wished I had asked my granddad."

Jerry is also a cowboy activist, a Western movie historian, and a folk artist. His cowboy and fur trade legacy can be back-trailed for more than twelve generations across the forests and prairies of North America.

Jerry explains,

"I've always known I had some distant relatives that were French-Canadian, but until recently I didn't know anything about them.

Yet, somehow deep within my DNA, I've always carried a burning desire to learn about North America's fur trade, and her mystical forest dwellers.

More than that, I've had a love affair with canoes and canoeing for 60 years. When I was a teenager, in the late 1950s, I rented canoes at Bass Lake, near Yosemite.

In 1974, I bought my first canoe, and promptly made two float trips down the Owens River in California's Eastern Sierras. Since then I have paddled hundreds of lakes and rivers across North America.

Some of my most cherished memories are of canoe trips to the Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Ontario's Algonquin Park, Wyoming's Snake River, and the upper Missouri River in Montana.


In the Boundary Waters, 1986

In a 2011 breakthrough, I discovered my French-Canadian roots, and learned that I share the DNA with more than a hundred French-Canadians that were involved in the fur trade between 1620 and 1820.

I guess it explains my love of canoeing, and those magical silent places that can only be reached by paddle and portage.
"

Jerry with his vintage Old Town Canoe at Wishon Reservoir, California, 2011

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Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

Appendix One - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots

Appendix One - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots




Pays d'en Haut, (Upper Country), was a vast territory west of Montreal, covering the whole of the Great Lakes north and south, and stretching as far into the North American continent as the French had explored. North of the Great Lakes, the first mission, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, was established in 1639. Following the destruction of the Huron homeland in 1649 by the Iroquois, the French missionaries returned to mainland Canada with the remaining Hurons who established themselves in Wendake.

By 1660, France started a policy of expansion into the interior of North America from what is now eastern Canada. The objectives were to locate a Northwest passage to China; to exploit the territory's natural resources, such as fur and mineral ores; and to convert the native population to Catholicism. Fur traders began exploring the pays d'en haut (upper country around the Great Lakes) at the time. In 1659, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart des Groseilliers reached the western end of Lake Superior. Priests founded missions, such as the Mission of Sault Sainte Marie in 1668.

In 1671, Father Jacques Marquette established a French mission at Michilimackinac that would over the next half century become a waypoint for exploration, a point for diplomatic relations with natives, and a commercial center for fur trade. On 17 May 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette began the exploration of the Mississippi River, which they called the Sioux Tongo (the large river) or Michissipi. They reached the mouth of the Arkansas River, and then returned upstream, having learned that the great river ran towards the Gulf of Mexico and not towards the Pacific Ocean as they had presumed.

Fort Kaministiquia, (former spellings include Fort Camanistigoyan, Fort Kanastigoya, Fort Kamanastigoya and others), was a French fort located on the north shore of Lake Superior at Thunder Bay, Ontario at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River. It and Grand Portage to the west were the starting points of the canoe route from the Great Lakes to western Canada.

In 1685 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut built a post nearby. In 1688 Jacques de Noyon went from Kaministiquia as far as Rainy Lake. In 1696 the post was abandoned along with many western posts when the system of fur trade permits (congés) was abolished due to a surplus of beaver.

In 1717 Zacharie Robutel de la Noue was sent west to find the western sea. It is not clear how far inland he got but he seems to have established Fort Kaministiquia and remained there until 1721. Coureurs des bois seem to have spread out from the fort, but we only know of them from rumors picked up by the English on Hudson Bay. Arthur S Morton, in his "A History of Western Canada" stated, he "thinks they may have gotten as far as Lake Winnipeg." From 1717 it was one of the postes du nord which included a post on the Nipigon River and one at Michipicoten. La Vérendrye took over the postes du nord in 1728 and in 1731-1743 he pushed trade and exploration west beyond Lake Winnipeg, mainly via Grand Portage using Kaministiquia as a base. It was abandoned in 1758 or 1760 with the fall of New France.

Trade was open again by at least 1767, most likely using the easier Grand Portage. When the North West Company was driven out of Grand Portage (it was on the US side) they established Fort William on the site of Fort Kaministiquia. Whatever remains of the fort is probably buried under the town of Thunder

Fort William, and Grand Portage were the two starting points for the canoe route from the Great Lakes to Western Canada. During the French period it was known as Fort Kaministiquia.

Fort William (Hudson's Bay Post)



Kamanistigouian, as a place, is first mentioned in a decree of the Conseil Souverain de la Nouvelle-France dated 23 August 1681 instructing one of two canoes to make known the king's amnesty to coureurs de bois, although the Kaministiquia River is depicted on the 1671 "Carte des Jésuites" as "Rrivière par où l'on va aux Assinipoualacs à 120 lieues vers le Nord-Ouest."

In late 1683 or spring 1684, Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, established a trading post near the mouth of the Kaministiquia River. French authorities closed this post in 1696 because of a glut on the fur market. In 1717, a new post, Fort Kaministiquia, was established at the river mouth by Zacharie Robutel de la Noue. This post appears on 18th century French maps by Royal hydrographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin as "Fort Caministogoyan". The post was abandoned in 1758 or 1760 during the British conquest of New France.

During the English period it was known as Fort William, and the fur trade was quickly re-established with most people using Grand Portage. By 1784, Montreal merchants and their "wintering partners" had formed the North West Company (Nor'Westers). The North West Company continued to use Grand Portage as their centre of operations after the area was ceded to the United States after the colonists' victory in the American Revolution.

Following the signing of the Jay Treaty of 1794 between Great Britain and the United States, which acknowledged American control of the area, the North West Company required a new midway transshipment point between their inland posts and Montreal. The partners needed to meet and exchange furs and supplies without being subject to American taxation.



Fort William - HBC Company Burying Ground - Thunder Bay, 1871

In 1803, the Nor'Westers abandoned Grand Portage and established a new fur trading post on the Kaministiquia River on land acquired from the Ojibwe by written agreement 30 July 1798.

The post was named Fort William in 1807 after William McGillivray, chief director of the North West Company from 1804-1821. After the union of the North West Company with the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in 1821, the fort lost its raison d'être because most trade shifted to York Factory on Hudson Bay. It became a minor HBC fur trading post.

The original site disappeared under development of Canadian Pacific Railway railroad tracks and coal piles in the 1880s. A replica of Fort William was built further upstream on the Kaministiquia River at Point de Meuron, a former military staging location named after Lord Selkirk's Swiss de Meuron regiment. It is now known as the Fort William Historical Park.

Fort Frontenac
, was a French trading post and military fort built in 1673 at the mouth of the Cataraqui River where the St. Lawrence River leaves Lake Ontario, in a location traditionally known as Cataraqui.

It is the present-day location of Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

The original fort, a crude, wooden palisade structure, was called Fort Cataraqui but was later named for Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France (Count Frontenac), who was responsible for building the fort. The fort, however, was still often referred to as Fort Cataraqui.

Fort Frontenac on Cataraqui River

The British destroyed the fort in 1758 during the Seven Years' War and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was turned over to the Canadian military in 1870–71 and it is still being used by the military.

Sault Ste. Marie, is a cross-border region in Canada and the United States. Formerly a single settlement from 1668 to 1817, it was subsequently divided by the establishment of the Canada–US border in the area. The name also refers to the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, a National Historic Site of Canada. Until 1987, the canal was part of the shipping route from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Superior. It includes a lock to bypass the rapids on the St. Marys River.

Sault Ste Marie (Hudson's Bay Post) 1863

The first lock was built in 1798 by the North West Company. On July 20, 1814 an American force destroyed the North West Company depot on the north shore of the St. Marys River. Since the Americans were unable to capture Fort Michilimackinac, the British forces retained control of the Sault. The lock was destroyed in 1814 in an attack by U.S. forces during the War of 1812.

The Illinois Country, (French: Pays des Illinois) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (French: la Haute-Louisiane; Spanish: Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States. While these names generally referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River watershed, French colonial settlement was concentrated along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in what is now the U.S. states of Illinois and Missouri, with outposts in Indiana.

Explored in 1673 from Green Bay to the Arkansas River by the Canadien expedition of Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, the area was claimed by France. It was settled primarily from the Pays d'en Haut in the context of the fur trade. Over time, the fur trade took some French Coureurs des bois to the far reaches of the Rocky Mountains, especially along the branches of the broad Missouri River valley. The French name, Pays des Illinois, means "Land of the Illinois [plural]" and is a reference to the Illinois Confederation, a group of related Algonquian native peoples.

Up until 1717, the Illinois Country was governed by the French province of Canada, but by order of King Louis XV, the Illinois Country was annexed to the French province of Louisiana, with the northeastern administrative border being somewhat vaguely on or near the Illinois River. The territory thus became known as "Upper Louisiana." By the mid-18th century, the major settlements included Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Chartres, Saint Philippe, and Prairie du Rocher, all on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day Illinois; and Ste. Genevieve across the river in Missouri, as well as Fort Vincennes in what is now Indiana.

Fort Saint Pierre, on Rainy Lake was the first French fort built west of Lake Superior. It was the first of eight forts built during the elder Vérendrye's expansion of trade and exploration westward from the Great Lakes. He reached Grand Portage in late August 1731.

Here most of the men refused to continue because of the late season, difficult portage and largely unknown country. Vérendrye wintered with most of the men at Fort Kaministiquia, but was able to send a few willing men westward under Christopher Dufrost de La Jemeraye. La Jemeraye reached Rainy Lake before the freezeup and built a fort at its outlet. Next May he sent a small load of furs back eastward, Vérendrye arrived in July, and pushed west to Lake of the Woods where he built Fort Saint Charles which quickly overshadowed Fort St. Pierre.

Coureurs des bois spread out and drew trade away from the English, but we only know of them from rumors picked up by the English on Hudson Bay. The area produced fish and wild rice.
The local people were Monsonis, with Cree further west. Both were at war with the Sioux to the south. The post remained in operation until 1758. Fort Lac la Pluie was built nearby by the North West Company sometime between 1775 and 1787. There is a modern reconstruction of the fort. The site was on the north bank of the Rainy River just past a series of rapids near its outflow from the lake at the modern town of Fort Frances.

Fort Saint Charles, (1732) on Lake of the Woods was the second post built by La Vérendrye during his expansion of trade and exploration west of Lake Superior. It was located on Magnusens Island on the Northwest Angle of Minnesota, 3.5 miles east of Angle Inlet, Minnesota and one mile southwest of Penasse, Minnesota, the most northerly point in that state. The site of the modern reconstruction may be somewhat different since the lake levels were raised by control structures on the Winnipeg River. For related forts see Winnipeg River.

La Vérendrye reached the north shore of Lake Superior in late 1731 and sent men ahead to build Fort St. Pierre on Rainy Lake. In July or August 1732 he, his eldest son Jean Baptiste de La Vérendrye, his nephew Christopher Dufrost de La Jemeraye, Father Charles-Michel Mesaiger and 50 canoes of Indians left Fort Saint Pierre and built Fort Saint Charles on Lake of the Woods. The fort was 60 by 100 feet with two gates and a double row of 15-foot palisades and four bastions and a watch tower. The internal buildings were roofed with bark. There was abundant fishing, hunting and wild rice, an important matter since it was difficult to haul food from Montreal or Fort Michilimackinac.


Next spring he sent Jean Baptiste and La Jameraye down the Winnipeg. They got to within 15 or 20 leagues of the lake when they were blocked by ice. The English on Hudson Bay reported increased activity of Coureurs des bois west of the fort, but La Vérendrye said nothing about them in his reports. On the first of January 1734 a group of Assiniboines reached the fort and brought the Europeans their first news of the Mandans. Some time after this two of his men returned from Lake Winnipeg and the first Fort Maurepas (Canada) was built soon after. In 1735 La Jameraye's men returned to the Lake from the Red River of the North via the Roseau River (Manitoba-Minnesota), Portage de la Savanne and Reed River.

On June 6, 1736 an expedition departed from Fort Saint Charles, consisting of Jean Baptiste de La Vérendrye (the eldest son) with the Jesuit missionary priest Father Jean-Pierre Aulneau and nineteen French-Canadian voyageurs. They were headed for Fort Michilimackinac. They had traveled only a few kilometres from the fort when they were attacked by Sioux, who killed everyone in the party. The Sioux were retaliating against La Vérendrye père, whom they believed was trading guns to their traditional enemies, the Cree and Assiniboine. The expedition members were killed on a small island, called Massacre Island, Ontario, however historians have not been unable to reach consensus on its exact identity. After the massacre was discovered, La Vérendrye père directed that the bodies of his son and the priest, and the heads of the 19 voyageurs, be brought back for burial at Fort Saint Charles. The remains of his son and the priest were buried under the altar stone of the chapel, and the voyageurs were buried outside. The fort was abandoned in 1749.

Fort Lac la Pluie, was a fur trade depot established by the North West Company sometime between 1775 and 1787. It was located on a high bank on the west side of modern Fort Frances, Ontario across fromInternational Falls, Minnesota on the Rainy River downstream (west) of some rapids (Chaudière portage) where the river flows out of Rainy Lake. Upstream at the outlet of the lake was the old French post ofFort Saint Pierre (1731-1758). The site is marked by a granite boulder. Morton describes some canoeable rapids, Fort Saint Pierre and a fall that had to be portaged before reaching the fort, which implies that the river level may have changed.

The place was a depot rather than a trading post and served two purposes. By this time the trade had reached the rich Lake Athabasca country which was too far to reach from Montreal in one season. Each May, when the ice broke up, boats with trade goods would head west from Montreal and winterers with canoe-loads of fur would head east. They would meet at Grand Portage on Lake Superior, exchange goods and head back before the freezeup. To further save time goods and furs would be shuttled between Grand Portage and Lac la Pluie. Second, it was a source of food. The voyageurs had no time to hunt and it was difficult to haul food from Montreal. Rainy Lake produced wild rice and fish. The fort also built kegs and canoes.

With the growth of pemmican production around Lake Winnipeg its importance as a food source diminished. It declined further when the two companies merged and trade shifted from Montreal to Hudson Bay. In 1792 two men were killed while out fishing. Around 1795 John McKay (fur trader) of the Hudson's Bay Company had a rival post nearby. With the merger of the two firms in 1821 it was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1830 it was named Fort Frances in honor of Governor Simpson's new wife. Its date of closure is uncertain. For the trade route in general see Winnipeg River.

Fort Niagara, is a fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in North America. It is located near Youngstown, New York, on the eastern bank of the Niagara River at its mouth, on Lake Ontario. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle built the first structure, called Fort Conti, in 1678. In 1687, the Governor of New France, the Marquis de Denonville, constructed a new fort at the former site of Fort Conti. He named it Fort Denonville and posted a hundred men under the command of Capt. Pierre de Troyes, Chevalier de Troyes.

The winter weather and disease was severe, and all but twelve perished by the time a relief force returned from Montreal. It was decided in September 1688 to abandon the post and the stockade was pulled down. In 1726, a two story "Maison a Machicoulis" or "Machicolated House" was constructed on the same site by French engineer Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry.

It was called the "House of Peace" or trading post to appease the Haudenosaunee, orIroquois. The name used today, "The French Castle" was not used until the 19th Century. The fort was expanded to its present size in 1755 due to increased tensions between French and British colonial interests.

Fort Crevecoeur, (French: Fort Crèvecœur) was founded on the east bank of the Illinois River, in the Illinois Country near the present site of Creve Coeur, a suburb of Peoria, Illinois, in January 1680.

Nearby, Fort Pimiteoui was established in 1691, a center of trade during the colonial period. Henri de Tonti was a primary founder of the Crevecouer and Pimiteoui outposts. On January 5, 1680, French explorers René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and Henri de Tonti established Fort Crèvecoeur, in which Mass was celebrated and the Gospel preached by the Récollets,Gabriel Ribourde, Zenobius Membre and Louis Hennepin.

They finished the fort in early March, naming it "Fort Broken Heart" because of the tribulations, including desertions, that they suffered during its construction.

Fort St. Joseph
, is a former British outpost on the southernmost point of St. Joseph Island in Ontario, Canada, on Lake Huron.

The fort consisted of a blockhouse, powder magazine, bakery building, Indian council house and storehouse surrounded by a palisade. Situated on approximately 325 hectares along the St. Mary's River, Fort St. Joseph was the staging ground for the initial attack in the War of 1812.

The fort was not only an important military outpost, but also a significant meeting place for trade and commerce in the region. During its short but illustrious occupation, it was the British Empire's most westerly outpost. Today, Fort St. Joseph is operated by Parks Canada and is designated a National Historic Site of Canada.

Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. The site of the former fort is now within the city of Detroit in the U.S. state of Michigan, an area bounded by Larned Street, Griswold Street, and the Civic Center.

River view of Detroit, 1794

Fort Michilimackinac, was an 18th-century French, and later British, fort and trading post at the Straits of Mackinac; it was built on the northern tip of the lower peninsula of the present-day state of Michigan in the United States. Built around 1715, and abandoned in 1783, it was located along the Straits, which connected Lake Huron and Lake Michigan of the Great Lakes of North America. Present-day Mackinaw City developed around the site of the fort, which has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. It is preserved as an open-air historical museum, with several reconstructed wooden buildings and palisade.

The primary purpose of the fort was as part of the French-Canadian trading post system, which stretched from the Atlantic Coast and the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes, and south to the Mississippi River through the Illinois Country. The fort served as a supply depot for traders in the western Great Lakes.

Michilimackinac on Lake Huron

The French had first established a presence in the Straits of Mackinac in 1671 when Father Marquette established the Jesuit St. Ignace Mission at present-day St. Ignace in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In 1683, they augmented the mission with Fort de Buade. In 1701, Sieur de Cadillac moved the French garrison to Fort Detroit and closed the mission.

By 1713, however, the French decided to re-establish a presence along the Straits of Mackinac, and built the wooden Fort Michilimackinac on the northern tip of the lower peninsula. They sent Constant le Marchand de Lignery with a contingent of soldiers and workmen in 1715 to accomplish the job. Over the decades, they made several modifications and expansions to the palisade walls. Chevalier Jacques Testard de Montigny, who was a Lt. and a Knight of the Order of St. Louis, was appointed in 1730 and served for three years as commandant of the fort. He was previously commandant of Fort La Baye (Green Bay, Wisconsin). Many of his relatives settled in Michigan.

The French relinquished the fort, along with their territory in Canada, to the British in 1761 following their loss in the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War. The British continued to operate the fort as a major trading post, but most residents were French and Métis (Ojibwe-French), who spoke predominately French and worshipped at Sainte Anne Church in a small log structure. Other civilian residents included British fur traders, some of whom resided within the fort in the southeastern row house.

La Baye, was a small trading post established on the Baie des Puants in 1634 by Jean Nicolet. Nicolas Perrot, who was sent by Father Claude-Jean Allouez, continued the work that Nicolet had started. In 1671, the Jesuits constructed a mission. Fort La Baye was thus constructed in 1717. The town of La Baye was incorporated in 1754. At the end of the Seven Years' War, it went under British control in 1761 and was renamed Green Bay.

“The Landfall of Jean Nicolet,” Edwin Willard Deming

By 1718, there were some Métis families in the very broad area of the fort, but no settlement focused on it specifically. Other families settled across the river from the fort in an area which was called Munnomonee, because of the Menominee native people that lived there.

It was not until 1763 that concerted civilian settlement by people with some European ancestry began in the area. The first settlement in that year was led by Charles de Langlade, who was the son of a French-Canadian father and an Odawa mother. Most of the families had come to La Baye from the Mackinac area.

In 1816 La Baye had a population of about 40 families, who were virtually all Métis. In the summer of 1820 La Baye was estimated by Henry Schoolcraft to have 500 inhabitants, all essentially Métis or at least in Métis families, that is even if they could be called clearly French, Odawa, or some other Native American group, their spouse was of a different group.

Fort La Baye, was a French military post at La Baye (Green Bay), which was built in 1717, and occupied until 1760.

One Commandant of the Fort was the famous Chevalier Jacques Testard de Montigny, Knight of the Order of St. Louis. By 1718, there were a number of French Canadian families living in the area near the fort. Other families settled across the river from the fort in an area which was called Munnomonee,because of the Menominee native people that lived there. Most of the families had come to La Baye from the Mackinac area.

In 1733 the Sauks, allied to the Meskwaki (Fox), attacked the French at Fort La Baye. When a French force went out after them, the sons of De Villiers and Repentigny were killed. In 1737 Claude-Antoine de Bermen de La Martinière was appointed commander of the fort. Pierre-Paul Marin became the leader of a French force against the Meskwaki and Sauks. He prevailed and in 1739 the Marquis de Beauharnois, Governor of Canada, wrote "Sieur Marin has re-established peace and quietness".

Fort Rouillé and Fort Toronto, were French trading posts located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Fort Rouillé was named for Antoine Louis Rouillé, who at the time of its establishment around 1750 was Secretary of State for the Navy in the administration of Louis XV. It was abandoned in 1759 due to the turbulence of the Seven Years' War.


Fort Charlotte, the former grand depôt of the North-west Company. The NWC were induced to remove their depôt to the mouth of the Kamanatekwoya, and construct Fort William.

(See: Grand Portage as a Trading Post: Patterns of Trade at “the Great Carrying Place”)

Grand Portage National Monument is a United States National Monument located on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota that preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage.

The Grand Portage, is an 8.5-mile (13.7 km) (2720 rod) footpath which bypasses a set of waterfalls and rapids on the last 20 miles (32 km) of the Pigeon River before it flows into Lake Superior. This path is part of the historic trade route of the French-Canadian voyageurs and coureur des bois between their wintering grounds and their depots to the east.

Composed of the Pigeon River and other strategic interior streams, lakes, and portages, this route was of enormous importance in pre-industrial times. It provided quick water access from Canada's settled areas and Atlantic ports to the fur-rich North-Western Territory. Some 50 miles (80 km) upstream from Lake Superior, this trade route crosses the Height of Land Portage, on the Northern continental divide, and connects South Lake in the Pigeon River/Great Lakes watershed with North Lake of the Rainy River watershed. Grand Portage therefore was an essential link between the drainage basin of the Nelson River to Arctic Ocean and that of the Saint Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean.

As early as 2,000 years ago, Indian Nations probably used Gichi-onigaming, or “the Great Carrying Place”, to travel from summer homes on Lake Superior to winter hunting grounds in the interior of Minnesota and Ontario. In 1729 Cree guide Auchagah drew a map for some of the first French fur traders, to show them how to reach the "western sea" of Lake Winnipeg. In time, Grand Portage became the gateway into rich northern fur-bearing country, where it connected remote interior outposts to lucrative international markets.

The Grand Portage trail is an 8.5-mile (13.7 km) trail connecting Grand Portage with Fort Charlotte on the Pigeon River.Voyageurs from the interior of Canada would carry their furs by canoe to Fort Charlotte, and portage the bundles of fur to Grand Portage. There they met traders from Montreal, and exchanged the furs for trade goods and supplies. Each canoe "brigade" then returned to its starting place. The fur traders built Fort Charlotte as a trading fort at Grand Portage. There they built the Grand Hall in the French colonial style, which housed their meetings, a general store, and other facilities.

In mid-July 1802, partners of the North West Company, the most successful fur trade company in North America, met in their Grand Hall at Grand Portage. They voted to move their summer headquarters from the protected shores of Lake Superior’s Grand Portage Bay 50 miles (80 km) north to the mouth of the Kaministiquia River. Almost from the time the British Nor’Westers had organized at Grand Portage in the mid-1780s, an emerging United States wanted them to stop competing with Americans in this territory.

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Index - Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

Ripples, Chapter Seven, French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau

Chapter Seven - French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneau


Lucy Pinsonneau Brown, 1905

Lucy Pinsonneault aka Lucy Passino was born 17 Jun 1836 in Rutland, Jefferson County, New York to Gabriel Pinsonneault (aka Gilbert Passino) and Maria Emelie Meunier Lagace (aka Mary Passino).  Lucy died on 2 Feb 1917 in Creston, Flathead Co., Montana.

For more than 15 years I had been trying to research the French Canadian ancestry of Lucy Passino.  The difficultly of learning about her family began with the fact that her father and mother, both born in Canada, were illiterate and probably spoke little or no English when they first emigrated to the United States about 1830.

We know Gabriel and Mary were still in Canada in 1827 when a son Francis was born there, but they had emigrated to Vermont by 1832 when their daughter Justine was born.  Lucy married John Galloway Brown on 23 Jan 1861 in Philadelphia, Jefferson Co., New York.

Preliminary notes for Lucy Passino:

Her son Abraham Lincoln Brown's death certificate listed his mother as Lucy Passneau.

Lucy Passino Brown's death certificate listed her father as Cassino born France, but her mother is unknown.  Lucy's birthplace was New York.

George Pierce, Lucy's younger brother, listed his father as Gilbert Pierce born Canada, and his mother as Mary Laggesie born France.  George's birthplace was New York.

Lydia Brown's, Lucy's grand-daughter, family history notes listed Lucy Passino Brown, as her grandmother, and the daughter of Gilbert Passino, born about 1815 in France, and Mary Armstrong, born about 1817.


John Brown and Lucy Pinsonneau , Creston, MT, 1910

Early public records for Lucy's father Gilbert:

1850 US Federal Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Passinault, age 47 (1803), born Canada
    Mary Passinault, age 40 (1810), born Canada

1850 New York Agriculture Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Passano

1860 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Gilbert Passino, age 57 (1803), born Canada
    Mary Passino, age 55 (1805), born Canada

1864 Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York Land Owner Map
    G. Pasino

1870 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Gilbert  Pasnan, age 68 (1802), born Canada
    Mary  Pasnan, age 62 (1808), born Canada

1870 New York Agriculture Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Pasnan

1877 He is Gilbert Passino in an obituary published in the Carthage Republican (New York)

1877 The name Gilbert Passino is on his headstone in Pierce Cemetery, Wilna (Fort Drum), Jefferson Co., New York.

Getting on the right track -- how Passino became Pinsonneau

An online discovery from: Press Republican newspaper (Plattsburgh, New York), 24 Nov 2002

Article Title: French connection -- From street signs to surnames, French-Canadian influence on region manifests itself in many distinct ways,  By Robin Caudell Staff Writer

"PLATTSBURGH — Remnants of a vibrant French Canadian past permeate the North Country.  Franco culture echoes in family surnames, names of geographical places and streets.  It is preserved in the architectural detail of private residences, commercial buildings and churches, and it’s savored in traditional recipes such as tourtiere and sliders.  "You have a sense that the culture has been fully assimilated, and there are relatively little current indications French Canadian culture existed here," said Dr. Sylvie Beaudreau, a professor of history at Plattsburgh State."

[excerpt from list] "Current Name: Passino -- Original Name: Pinsonneau,"  Source: "Volume  III, Headstone Inscriptions, Clinton County, NY" by Clyde Rabideau Sr.

Pursuing Pinsonneau -- Church records for Gilbert aka Gabriel Pinsonneau

Birth:  from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967
Gabriel Pinsonneau
Event Year: 1801-1805
Event: Naissance (Birth)
Religion: Catholique
Place of Worship: La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine)
Province: Québec

Marriage: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967
Gabriel Pinsonault
Spouse: Marie Emilie Lagasse
Event Year: 1824
Event: Mariage (Marriage)
Religion: Catholique
Place of Worship: Châteauguay St-Joachim
Province: Québec

Breakthrough -- Death certificate of ‘Mary’ Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé

I found a death certificate online in the Drouin Collection for Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé. Since it was in French I could not read it, so I sent a copy to a Lagacé Family researcher. She replied with,
"Find enclosed the copy of the death certificate for Mary Passino aka Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé. It is clearly indicated she was the wife of Gilbert Pinsonnault, of ( États-Unis) United States."
 
Best regards

Valdor Lagacé, président, A.F.L.L.inc.

Death certificate of ‘Mary’ Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé

So that confirmed my suspicions; I had found my 3rd great-grandparents in Canada.

Discovering Pinsonnault Ancestors > France > La Prairie, Quebec, Canada > USA:

Lucy  Passino (Pinsonneau)
Birth 17 Jun 1836 in Wilna, New York, United States
Death 2 Feb 1917 in Creston, Flathead, Montana, United States
Marriage to John Gallaway Brown 23 Jan 1861 Philadelphia, Jefferson, New York
John Gallaway Brown
Birth 8 Aug 1833 in Philadelphia, Jefferson, New York, United States
Death 28 Mar 1915 in Creston, Flathead, Montana, United States

Five generations of our Pinsonnaults lived in La Prairie de la Madelene, Québec, Canada just across the river from Montreal, and within 260 kilometers (162 miles) of Lucy's birthplace in New York.

Parents:

Gabriel (Gilbert) Pinsonneau (Passino) (Passinault) (Pinsonneault)
Birth 3 Mar 1802 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 16 Dec 1877 in Wilna, Jefferson Co., NY
Marriage to Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier dite Lagacé 25 Oct 1824 St-Joachim Châteauguay, Québec
Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier dite Lagacé
Birth 1808 in Quebec, Canada
Death 1883 in Quebec, Canada

Grandparents:

Gabriel Pinsonneault (Pinsonneau)
Birth 5 Aug 1770 in St Philippe, Quebec, Canada
Death after 1813
Marriage to Marie Vielle Cosse 8 Feb 1802 La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec 
Marie Vielle Cosse
Birth about 1781
Death after 1813

Great Grandparents:

Joseph Jacques Pinsonneault
Birth 10 Apr 1733 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 1779 in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada
Marriage to Madeleine Duquet 1761 La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Madeleine Duquet
Birth 25 Aug 1734 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 10 Nov 1791 in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada

2nd Great Grandparents:

Jacques) Pinsonnault dit LaFleur
Birth 19 Mar 1682 in Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada
Death 19 Mar 1773 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage to Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695-1725) La Prairie, Québec
Marie Elisabeth Bourassa, daughter of Francois Bourassa, Coureur de Bois.
Birth 25 Feb 1695 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 22 Nov 1766 in La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec

3rd Great Grandparents -- First Immigrant Ancestors from France:
   
Francois Pinsonnault dit LaFleur, arrived with the Carignan-Salieres Regiment in 1665
Birth 1646 in Saintonge, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death 26 Jan 1731 in La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-La Prairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage to Anne Leper 1 May 1673 Sorel, Quebec, Canada
Anne Leper was a (Filles du Roi, or King's Daughters)
Birth 1647 in Luçon, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France
Death 29 Jan 1732 in La Prairie, Quebec, Canada

Lucy’s third great grandfather Francois Bourassa, was a Coureur de Bois

Lucy’s third great grandfather was Francois Bourassa who was born about 1660 in the town of Saint-Hilaire-de-Loulay France.  He arrived in New France by 16 Aug. 1683.  On 4 July 1684 he married Marie Leber at Fort Chambly.

Marie's family was very active in the fur trade, including Marie's uncle Jacques.  Francois signed on to go to Fort Michilimackinac, a French fort and trading post located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, in 1690, but did not return in the fall 1691 as planned.  What happened to Francois was unknown.  Marie believed her husband was dead and she was referred to as a widow in September 1693.  But Francois returned safe and sound next year. Subsequently, François Bourassa never leaves his family and is dedicated to the cultivation of the land at La Prairie until his death May 9, 1708, during an epidemic. Nothing prevents one of his sons, Rene, from following in the footsteps of his father and he eventually becomes a partner of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de la Verendrye in the fur trade and established Fort Vermilion (Manitoba) in 1736.

Our Pinsonneau lineage started with Francois Pinsonnault dit LaFleur of the Carignan-Salières Regiment:

The pleas of the colonists of New France for assistance in their struggle with the Iroquois were answered in 1665 with the arrival of the first French regular troops in Canada, the Carignan-Salières Regiment.

Between June and September 1665, some 1200 soldiers and their officers arrived in Quebec, under the leadership of Lt. General Alexander de Prouville, Sieur de Tracy.

The series of forts established by the Regiment along the Richelieu River, along with the success of its second campaign into the land of the Mohawk Indians, led to a long period of peace for the colony, which permitted it to prosper. However, King Louis XIV's plan included the permanent settlement of many of the soldiers and officers in Canada. Over 450 of these troops remained in the colony, many of whom married the newly arrived filles du roi.

And Anne Leper, a Filles du Roi:

The Filles du Roi, or King's Daughters, were some 770 women who arrived in the colony of New France between 1663 and 1673, under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV of France. They were part of King Louis XIV's program to promote the settlement of his colony in Canada. Some 737 of these women married and the resultant population explosion gave rise to the success of the colony. Most of the millions of people of French Canadian descent today, both in Quebec and the rest of Canada and the USA (and beyond!), are descendants of one or more of these courageous women of the 17th century.

Most were single French women and many were orphans. Their transportation to Canada and settlement in the colony were paid for by the King. Some were given a royal gift of a dowry of 50 livres for their marriage to one of the many unmarried male colonists in Canada. These gifts are reflected in some of the marriage contracts entered into by the filles du roi at the time of their first marriages. Of the nearly 1000 women who undertook the journey, about 770 made it to Canada. They were promised 50 livres if they married a soldier or farmer and 100 livres if an officer. There were very few of the latter simply because there were very few officers who needed help in finding a girl of their own choice.

NEXT: Appendix One - French Era Fur Trade Forts, Posts and Depots... http://laprairie-voyageur-canoes.blogspot.com/2017/03/appendix-one-french-era-fur-trade-forts.html

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